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From desruisse...@apache.org
Subject [sis] 02/03: Replace ConvertedGridCoverage body by new code usinb BandedSampleConverter. We lost write capability in converted values for now.
Date Sat, 04 Jan 2020 17:53:11 GMT
This is an automated email from the ASF dual-hosted git repository.

desruisseaux pushed a commit to branch geoapi-4.0
in repository https://gitbox.apache.org/repos/asf/sis.git

commit e8aa999a259790516cf49acda5754007ee94dda6
Author: Martin Desruisseaux <martin.desruisseaux@geomatys.com>
AuthorDate: Sat Jan 4 18:43:04 2020 +0100

    Replace ConvertedGridCoverage body by new code usinb BandedSampleConverter.
    We lost write capability in converted values for now.
---
 .../org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage.java |  41 +-
 .../apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage2D.java   | 109 ++--
 .../apache/sis/coverage/grid/ImageRenderer.java    |   2 +-
 .../coverage/j2d/BufferedGridCoverage.java         |  29 --
 .../coverage/j2d/ConvertedGridCoverage.java        | 570 ++++++---------------
 .../sis/internal/coverage/j2d/RasterFactory.java   |  61 ++-
 .../sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage2DTest.java      |  18 +-
 .../coverage/j2d/BufferedGridCoverageTest.java     |   3 +-
 .../org/apache/sis/internal/util/Numerics.java     |   7 +
 9 files changed, 319 insertions(+), 521 deletions(-)

diff --git a/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage.java b/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage.java
index d61d454..40c0596 100644
--- a/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage.java
+++ b/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage.java
@@ -26,9 +26,11 @@ import org.opengis.referencing.crs.CoordinateReferenceSystem;
 import org.opengis.referencing.datum.PixelInCell;
 import org.opengis.referencing.operation.MathTransform;
 import org.opengis.referencing.operation.TransformException;
+import org.opengis.referencing.operation.NoninvertibleTransformException;
 import org.apache.sis.internal.util.UnmodifiableArrayList;
 import org.apache.sis.coverage.SampleDimension;
 import org.apache.sis.coverage.SubspaceNotSpecifiedException;
+import org.apache.sis.internal.coverage.j2d.ConvertedGridCoverage;
 import org.apache.sis.util.collection.DefaultTreeTable;
 import org.apache.sis.util.collection.TableColumn;
 import org.apache.sis.util.collection.TreeTable;
@@ -72,6 +74,14 @@ public abstract class GridCoverage {
     private final SampleDimension[] sampleDimensions;
 
     /**
+     * View over this grid coverage after conversion of sample values, or {@code null} if not yet created.
+     * May be {@code this} if we determined that there is no conversion or the conversion is identity.
+     *
+     * @see #forConvertedValues(boolean)
+     */
+    private transient GridCoverage packedView, convertedView;
+
+    /**
      * The last coordinate operation used by {@link #toGridCoordinates(DirectPosition)}.
      * This is cached for avoiding the costly process of fetching a coordinate operation
      * in the common case where the coordinate reference systems did not changed.
@@ -140,6 +150,26 @@ public abstract class GridCoverage {
     }
 
     /**
+     * Returns the converted or package view, or {@code null} if not yet computed.
+     * It is caller responsibility to ensure that this method is invoked in a synchronized block.
+     */
+    final GridCoverage getView(final boolean converted) {
+        return converted ? convertedView : packedView;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Sets the converted or package view. The given view should not be null.
+     * It is caller responsibility to ensure that this method is invoked in a synchronized block.
+     */
+    final void setView(final boolean converted, final GridCoverage view) {
+        if (converted) {
+            convertedView = view;
+        } else {
+            packedView = view;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
      * Returns a grid coverage that contains real values or sample values, depending if {@code converted} is {@code true}
      * or {@code false} respectively. If there is no {@linkplain SampleDimension#getTransferFunction() transfer function}
      * defined by the {@linkplain #getSampleDimensions() sample dimensions}, then this method returns {@code this}.
@@ -162,7 +192,16 @@ public abstract class GridCoverage {
      *
      * @see SampleDimension#forConvertedValues(boolean)
      */
-    public abstract GridCoverage forConvertedValues(boolean converted);
+    public synchronized GridCoverage forConvertedValues(final boolean converted) {
+        GridCoverage view = getView(converted);
+        if (view == null) try {
+            view = ConvertedGridCoverage.create(this, converted);
+            setView(converted, view);
+        } catch (NoninvertibleTransformException e) {
+            throw new CannotEvaluateException(e.getMessage(), e);
+        }
+        return view;
+    }
 
     /**
      * Returns a sequence of double values for a given point in the coverage.
diff --git a/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage2D.java b/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage2D.java
index b53636c..5c1fb4b 100644
--- a/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage2D.java
+++ b/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage2D.java
@@ -16,9 +16,12 @@
  */
 package org.apache.sis.coverage.grid;
 
+import java.util.List;
 import java.util.Arrays;
+import java.util.ArrayList;
 import java.util.Collection;
 import java.util.Collections;
+import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicReference;
 import java.text.NumberFormat;
 import java.text.FieldPosition;
 import java.io.IOException;
@@ -33,10 +36,13 @@ import org.opengis.util.InternationalString;
 import org.opengis.geometry.DirectPosition;
 import org.opengis.referencing.datum.PixelInCell;
 import org.opengis.referencing.crs.CoordinateReferenceSystem;
+import org.opengis.referencing.operation.NoninvertibleTransformException;
 import org.opengis.referencing.operation.TransformException;
+import org.opengis.referencing.operation.MathTransform1D;
 import org.apache.sis.coverage.SampleDimension;
 import org.apache.sis.internal.coverage.j2d.ImageUtilities;
 import org.apache.sis.internal.coverage.j2d.ConvertedGridCoverage;
+import org.apache.sis.internal.coverage.j2d.BandedSampleConverter;
 import org.apache.sis.internal.feature.Resources;
 import org.apache.sis.internal.system.DefaultFactories;
 import org.apache.sis.util.collection.TableColumn;
@@ -120,27 +126,33 @@ public class GridCoverage2D extends GridCoverage {
     /**
      * The two-dimensional components of the coordinate reference system and "grid to CRS" transform.
      * This is derived from {@link #gridGeometry} when first needed, retaining only the components at
-     * dimension indices {@link #xDimension} and {@link #yDimension}.
+     * dimension indices {@link #xDimension} and {@link #yDimension}. The same {@link AtomicReference}
+     * instance may be shared with {@link #convertedView} and {@link #packedView}.
      *
      * @see #getGridGeometry2D()
      */
-    private transient GridGeometry gridGeometry2D;
+    private final AtomicReference<GridGeometry> gridGeometry2D;
 
     /**
-     * Result of the call to {@link #forConvertedValues(boolean)} with a boolean value opposite to
-     * {@link #isConverted}. This coverage is determined when first needed and may be {@code this}.
+     * Creates a new grid coverage for the conversion of specified source coverage.
      *
-     * @see #forConvertedValues(boolean)
+     * @param  source       the coverage containing source values.
+     * @param  range        the sample dimensions to assign to the converted grid coverage.
+     * @param  converters   conversion from source to converted coverage, one transform per band.
+     * @param  isConverted  whether this grid coverage is for converted or packed values.
      */
-    private transient GridCoverage converse;
-
-    /**
-     * Whether all sample dimensions are already representing converted values.
-     * This field has no meaning if {@link #converse} is null.
-     *
-     * @see #forConvertedValues(boolean)
-     */
-    private transient boolean isConverted;
+    private GridCoverage2D(final GridCoverage2D source, final List<SampleDimension> range,
+                           final MathTransform1D[] converters, final boolean isConverted)
+    {
+        super(source.gridGeometry, range);
+        final int dataType = ConvertedGridCoverage.getDataType(range, isConverted);
+        data           = new BandedSampleConverter(source.data, null, dataType, converters);
+        gridToImageX   = source.gridToImageX;
+        gridToImageY   = source.gridToImageY;
+        xDimension     = source.xDimension;
+        yDimension     = source.yDimension;
+        gridGeometry2D = source.gridGeometry2D;
+    }
 
     /**
      * Constructs a grid coverage using the specified domain, range and data. If the given domain does not
@@ -190,7 +202,7 @@ public class GridCoverage2D extends GridCoverage {
         gridToImageX = subtractExact(data.getMinX(), extent.getLow(xDimension));
         gridToImageY = subtractExact(data.getMinY(), extent.getLow(yDimension));
         /*
-         * Verifiy that the domain is consistent with image size.
+         * Verify that the domain is consistent with image size.
          * We do not verify image location; it can be anywhere.
          */
         for (int i=0; i<MIN_DIMENSION; i++) {
@@ -201,6 +213,7 @@ public class GridCoverage2D extends GridCoverage {
             }
         }
         verifyBandCount(range, data);
+        gridGeometry2D = new AtomicReference<>();
     }
 
     /**
@@ -255,14 +268,12 @@ public class GridCoverage2D extends GridCoverage {
      * This convenience constructor computes a {@link GridGeometry} from the given envelope and image size.
      * This constructor assumes that all grid axes are in the same order than CRS axes and no axis is flipped.
      * This straightforward approach often results in the <var>y</var> axis to be oriented toward up,
-     * not down as often expected in rendered images.
+     * not down as commonly expected with rendered images.
      *
      * <p>This constructor is generally not recommended because of the assumptions on axis order and directions.
      * For better control, use the constructor expecting a {@link GridGeometry} argument instead.
      * This constructor is provided mostly as a convenience for testing purposes.</p>
      *
-     * @todo Not yet public. We should provide an argument controlling whether to flip Y axis.
-     *
      * @param  domain  the envelope encompassing all images, from upper-left corner to lower-right corner.
      *                 If {@code null} a default grid geometry will be created with no CRS and identity conversion.
      * @param  range   sample dimensions for each image band. The size of this list must be equal to the number of bands.
@@ -272,7 +283,7 @@ public class GridCoverage2D extends GridCoverage {
      *
      * @see GridGeometry#GridGeometry(GridExtent, Envelope)
      */
-    GridCoverage2D(final Envelope domain, final Collection<? extends SampleDimension> range, final RenderedImage data) {
+    public GridCoverage2D(final Envelope domain, final Collection<? extends SampleDimension> range, final RenderedImage data) {
         super(createGridGeometry(data, domain), defaultIfAbsent(range, data));
         this.data = data;   // Non-null verified by createGridGeometry(…, data).
         xDimension   = 0;
@@ -280,6 +291,7 @@ public class GridCoverage2D extends GridCoverage {
         gridToImageX = 0;
         gridToImageY = 0;
         verifyBandCount(range, data);
+        gridGeometry2D = new AtomicReference<>();
     }
 
     /**
@@ -387,59 +399,44 @@ public class GridCoverage2D extends GridCoverage {
      * @see #getGridGeometry()
      * @see GridGeometry#reduce(int...)
      */
-    public synchronized GridGeometry getGridGeometry2D() {
-        if (gridGeometry2D == null) {
-            gridGeometry2D = gridGeometry.reduce(xDimension, yDimension);
+    public GridGeometry getGridGeometry2D() {
+        GridGeometry g = gridGeometry2D.get();
+        if (g == null) {
+            g = gridGeometry.reduce(xDimension, yDimension);
+            if (!gridGeometry2D.compareAndSet(null, g)) {
+                GridGeometry other = gridGeometry2D.get();
+                if (other != null) return other;
+            }
         }
-        return gridGeometry2D;
+        return g;
     }
 
     /**
      * Returns a grid coverage that contains real values or sample values,
      * depending if {@code converted} is {@code true} or {@code false} respectively.
      *
-     * If the given value is {@code true}, then the default implementation returns a grid coverage which produces
-     * {@link RenderedImage} views. Those views convert each sample value on the fly. This is known to be very slow
-     * if an entire raster needs to be processed, but this is temporary until another implementation is provided in
-     * a future SIS release.
-     *
      * @param  converted  {@code true} for a coverage containing converted values,
      *                    or {@code false} for a coverage containing packed values.
      * @return a coverage containing converted or packed values, depending on {@code converted} argument value.
      */
     @Override
     public synchronized GridCoverage forConvertedValues(final boolean converted) {
-        if (converse == null) {
-            isConverted = allConvertedFlagEqual(true);
-            if (isConverted) {
-                if (allConvertedFlagEqual(false)) {
-                    // No conversion in any direction.
-                    converse = this;
-                } else {
-                    // Data are converted and user may want a packed format.
-                    converse = ConvertedGridCoverage.createFromConverted(this);
-                }
+        GridCoverage2D view = (GridCoverage2D) getView(converted);
+        if (view == null) try {
+            final List<SampleDimension> sources = getSampleDimensions();
+            final List<SampleDimension> targets = new ArrayList<>(sources.size());
+            final MathTransform1D[]  converters = ConvertedGridCoverage.converters(sources, targets, converted);
+            if (converters != null) {
+                view = new GridCoverage2D(this, targets, converters, converted);
+                view.setView(!converted, this);
             } else {
-                // Anything that need conversion, even if "is packed" test is also false.
-                converse = ConvertedGridCoverage.createFromPacked(this);
-            }
-        }
-        return (converted == isConverted) ? this : converse;
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Determines whether an "is converted" or "is packed" test on all sample dimensions returns {@code true}.
-     *
-     * @param  converted  {@coce true} for an "is converted" test, or {@code false} for an "is packed" test.
-     * @return whether all sample dimensions in this coverage pass the specified test.
-     */
-    private boolean allConvertedFlagEqual(final boolean converted) {
-        for (final SampleDimension sd : getSampleDimensions()) {
-            if (sd != sd.forConvertedValues(converted)) {
-                return false;
+                view = this;
             }
+            setView(converted, view);
+        } catch (NoninvertibleTransformException e) {
+            throw new CannotEvaluateException(e.getMessage(), e);
         }
-        return true;
+        return view;
     }
 
     /**
diff --git a/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/ImageRenderer.java b/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/ImageRenderer.java
index 30d43c9..df4095d 100644
--- a/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/ImageRenderer.java
+++ b/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/ImageRenderer.java
@@ -375,7 +375,7 @@ public class ImageRenderer {
         for (int i=0; i<data.length; i++) {
             final Vector v = data[i];
             ArgumentChecks.ensureNonNullElement("data", i, v);
-            final int t = RasterFactory.getType(v.getElementType(), v.isUnsigned());
+            final int t = RasterFactory.getDataType(v.getElementType(), v.isUnsigned());
             if (dataType != t) {
                 if (i != 0) {
                     throw new RasterFormatException(Resources.format(Resources.Keys.MismatchedDataType));
diff --git a/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/BufferedGridCoverage.java b/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/BufferedGridCoverage.java
index e84e424..63254ee 100644
--- a/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/BufferedGridCoverage.java
+++ b/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/BufferedGridCoverage.java
@@ -56,11 +56,6 @@ public class BufferedGridCoverage extends GridCoverage {
     protected final DataBuffer data;
 
     /**
-     * Result of the call to {@link #forConvertedValues(boolean)}, created when first needed.
-     */
-    private GridCoverage converted;
-
-    /**
      * Constructs a grid coverage using the specified grid geometry, sample dimensions and data buffer.
      * This method stores the given buffer by reference (no copy).
      *
@@ -119,28 +114,4 @@ public class BufferedGridCoverage extends GridCoverage {
             throw new CannotEvaluateException(e.getMessage(), e);
         }
     }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns a grid coverage that contains real values or sample values, depending if {@code converted} is {@code true}
-     * or {@code false} respectively.
-     *
-     * If the given value is {@code true}, then the default implementation returns a grid coverage which produces
-     * {@link RenderedImage} views. Those views convert each sample value on the fly. This is known to be very slow
-     * if an entire raster needs to be processed, but this is temporary until another implementation is provided in
-     * a future SIS release.
-     *
-     * @return a coverage containing converted or packed values, depending on {@code converted} argument value.
-     */
-    @Override
-    public GridCoverage forConvertedValues(final boolean converted) {
-        if (converted) {
-            synchronized (this) {
-                if (this.converted == null) {
-                    this.converted = ConvertedGridCoverage.createFromPacked(this);
-                }
-                return this.converted;
-            }
-        }
-        return this;
-    }
 }
diff --git a/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/ConvertedGridCoverage.java b/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/ConvertedGridCoverage.java
index ffd0bbf..5629cfd 100644
--- a/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/ConvertedGridCoverage.java
+++ b/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/ConvertedGridCoverage.java
@@ -16,493 +16,211 @@
  */
 package org.apache.sis.internal.coverage.j2d;
 
-import java.awt.Rectangle;
-import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;
-import java.awt.image.ColorModel;
+import java.util.List;
+import java.util.Arrays;
+import java.util.ArrayList;
+import java.util.Optional;
 import java.awt.image.DataBuffer;
-import java.awt.image.Raster;
 import java.awt.image.RenderedImage;
-import java.awt.image.SampleModel;
-import java.awt.image.WritableRaster;
-import java.util.ArrayList;
-import java.util.Arrays;
-import java.util.List;
-import java.util.Objects;
+import org.opengis.geometry.DirectPosition;
+import org.opengis.coverage.CannotEvaluateException;
+import org.opengis.referencing.operation.MathTransform1D;
+import org.opengis.referencing.operation.TransformException;
+import org.opengis.referencing.operation.NoninvertibleTransformException;
+import org.apache.sis.referencing.operation.transform.MathTransforms;
 import org.apache.sis.coverage.SampleDimension;
 import org.apache.sis.coverage.grid.GridCoverage;
 import org.apache.sis.coverage.grid.GridExtent;
 import org.apache.sis.measure.NumberRange;
-import org.apache.sis.referencing.operation.transform.MathTransforms;
-import org.opengis.referencing.operation.MathTransform1D;
-import org.opengis.referencing.operation.NoninvertibleTransformException;
-import org.opengis.referencing.operation.TransformException;
 
 
 /**
  * Decorates a {@link GridCoverage} in order to convert sample values on the fly.
+ * There is two strategies about when to convert sample values:
  *
- * <p><b>WARNING: this is a temporary class.</b>
- * This class produces a special {@link SampleModel} in departure with the contract documented in JDK javadoc.
- * That sample model does not only define the sample layout (pixel stride, scanline stride, <i>etc.</i>), but
- * also converts the sample values. This may be an issue for optimized pipelines accessing {@link DataBuffer}
- * directly. This class may be replaced by another mechanism (creating new tiles) in a future SIS version.</p>
+ * <ul>
+ *   <li>In calls to {@link #render(GridExtent)}, sample values are converted when first needed
+ *       on a tile-by-tile basis then cached for future reuse. Note however that discarding the
+ *       returned image may result in the lost of cached tiles.</li>
+ *   <li>In calls to {@link #evaluate(DirectPosition, double[])}, the conversion is applied
+ *       on-the-fly each time in order to avoid the potentially costly tile computations.</li>
+ * </ul>
  *
  * @author  Johann Sorel (Geomatys)
+ * @author  Martin Desruisseaux (Geomatys)
  * @version 1.1
  * @since   1.0
  * @module
  */
 public final class ConvertedGridCoverage extends GridCoverage {
     /**
-     * Returns a coverage for converted values computed from a coverage of package values.
-     * If the given coverage is already converted,
-     * then this method returns the given {@code coverage} unchanged.
-     *
-     * @param  packed  the coverage containing packed values to convert.
-     * @return the converted coverage. May be {@code coverage}.
+     * The coverage containing source values.
+     * Sample values will be converted from that coverage using the {@link #converters}.
      */
-    public static GridCoverage createFromPacked(final GridCoverage packed) {
-        final List<SampleDimension> sds = packed.getSampleDimensions();
-        final List<SampleDimension> cfs = new ArrayList<>(sds.size());
-        for (SampleDimension sd : sds) {
-            cfs.add(sd.forConvertedValues(true));
-        }
-        return cfs.equals(sds) ? packed : new ConvertedGridCoverage(packed, sds, cfs);
-    }
+    private final GridCoverage source;
 
     /**
-     * @todo Placeholder for future evolution.
+     * Conversions from {@link #source} values to converted values.
+     * The length of this array shall be equal to the number of bands.
      */
-    public static GridCoverage createFromConverted(final GridCoverage converted) {
-        throw new UnsupportedOperationException("\"Converted to packed\" not yet implemented.");
-    }
+    private final MathTransform1D[] converters;
 
     /**
-     * The coverage containing packed values. Sample values will be converted from this coverage.
+     * Whether this grid coverage is for converted values.
+     * If {@code false}, then this coverage is for packed values.
      */
-    private final GridCoverage packed;
+    private final boolean isConverted;
 
     /**
-     * Conversions from {@code packed} values to converted values. There is one transform for each band.
+     * One of {@link DataBuffer} constants the describe the sample values type
+     * of images produced by {@link #render(GridExtent)}.
      */
-    private final MathTransform1D[] toConverted;
+    private final int dataType;
 
     /**
-     * Conversions from converted values to {@code packed} values. They are the inverse of {@link #toConverted}.
+     * Creates a new coverage with the same grid geometry than the given coverage but converted sample dimensions.
+     *
+     * @param  source       the coverage containing source values.
+     * @param  range        the sample dimensions to assign to the converted grid coverage.
+     * @param  converters   conversion from source to converted coverage, one transform per band.
+     * @param  isConverted  whether this grid coverage is for converted or packed values.
      */
-    private final MathTransform1D[] toPacked;
+    private ConvertedGridCoverage(final GridCoverage source, final List<SampleDimension> range,
+                                  final MathTransform1D[] converters, final boolean isConverted)
+    {
+        super(source.getGridGeometry(), range);
+        this.source      = source;
+        this.converters  = converters;
+        this.isConverted = isConverted;
+        this.dataType    = getDataType(range, isConverted);
+    }
 
     /**
-     * Whether all transforms in the {@link #toConverted} array are identity transforms.
+     * Returns a coverage of converted values computed from a coverage of packed values, or conversely.
+     * If the given coverage is already converted, then this method returns {@code coverage} unchanged.
+     *
+     * @param  source     the coverage containing values to convert.
+     * @param  converted  {@code true} for a coverage containing converted values,
+     *                    or {@code false} for a coverage containing packed values.
+     * @return the converted coverage. May be {@code source}.
+     * @throws NoninvertibleTransformException if this constructor can not build a full conversion chain to target.
      */
-    private final boolean isIdentity;
+    public static GridCoverage create(final GridCoverage source, final boolean converted) throws NoninvertibleTransformException {
+        final List<SampleDimension> sources = source.getSampleDimensions();
+        final List<SampleDimension> targets = new ArrayList<>(sources.size());
+        final MathTransform1D[]  converters = converters(sources, targets, converted);
+        return (converters != null) ? new ConvertedGridCoverage(source, targets, converters, converted) : source;
+    }
 
     /**
-     * Creates a new coverage with the same grid geometry than the given coverage and the given converted sample dimensions.
+     * Returns the transforms for converting sample values from given sources to the {@code converted} status
+     * of those sources. This method opportunistically adds the target sample dimensions in {@code target} list.
+     *
+     * @param  sources    {@link GridCoverage#getSampleDimensions()} of {@code source} coverage.
+     * @param  targets    where to add {@link SampleDimension#forConvertedValues(boolean)} results.
+     * @param  converted  {@code true} for transforms to converted values, or {@code false} for transforms to packed values.
+     * @return the transforms, or {@code null} if all transforms are identity transform.
+     * @throws NoninvertibleTransformException if this method can not build a full conversion chain.
      */
-    private ConvertedGridCoverage(final GridCoverage packed, final List<SampleDimension> sampleDimensions, final List<SampleDimension> converted) {
-        super(packed.getGridGeometry(), converted);
-        final int numBands = sampleDimensions.size();
-        toConverted = new MathTransform1D[numBands];
-        toPacked    = new MathTransform1D[numBands];
-        boolean isIdentity = true;
-        final MathTransform1D identity = (MathTransform1D) MathTransforms.identity(1);
+    public static MathTransform1D[] converters(final List<SampleDimension> sources,
+                                               final List<SampleDimension> targets,
+                                               final boolean converted)
+            throws NoninvertibleTransformException
+    {
+        final int               numBands   = sources.size();
+        final MathTransform1D   identity   = (MathTransform1D) MathTransforms.identity(1);
+        final MathTransform1D[] converters = new MathTransform1D[numBands];
+        Arrays.fill(converters, identity);
         for (int i = 0; i < numBands; i++) {
-            MathTransform1D tr = sampleDimensions.get(i).getTransferFunction().orElse(identity);
-            toConverted[i] = tr;
-            isIdentity &= tr.isIdentity();
-            try {
-                tr = tr.inverse();
-            } catch (NoninvertibleTransformException ex) {
-                tr = (MathTransform1D) MathTransforms.linear(Double.NaN, 0.0);
+            final SampleDimension src = sources.get(i);
+            final SampleDimension tgt = src.forConvertedValues(converted);
+            targets.add(tgt);
+            if (src != tgt) {
+                MathTransform1D tr = src.getTransferFunction().orElse(identity);
+                Optional<MathTransform1D> complete = tgt.getTransferFunction();
+                if (complete.isPresent()) {
+                    tr = MathTransforms.concatenate(tr, complete.get().inverse());
+                }
+                converters[i] = tr;
             }
-            toPacked[i] = tr;
         }
-        this.isIdentity = isIdentity;
-        this.packed     = packed;
+        for (final MathTransform1D converter : converters) {
+            if (!converter.isIdentity()) return converters;
+        }
+        return null;
     }
 
     /**
-     * Creates a converted view over {@link #packed} data for the given extent.
+     * Returns the {@link DataBuffer} constant for range of values of given sample dimensions.
      *
-     * @return the grid slice as a rendered image, as a converted view.
+     * @param  targets    the sample dimensions for which to get the data type.
+     * @param  converted  whether the image will hold converted or packed values.
+     * @return the {@link DataBuffer} type.
      */
-    @Override
-    public RenderedImage render(final GridExtent sliceExtent) {
-        final RenderedImage render = packed.render(sliceExtent);
-        if (isIdentity) {
-            return render;
-        }
-        final Raster raster;
-        if (render.getNumXTiles() == 1 && render.getNumYTiles() == 1 && render.getTileGridXOffset() == 0 && render.getTileGridYOffset() == 0) {
-            raster = render.getTile(render.getMinTileX(), render.getMinTileY());
-        } else {
-            /*
-             * This fallback is very inefficient since it copies all data in one big raster.
-             * We will replace this class by tiles management in a future Apache SIS version.
-             *
-             * Note : we need to specify the Rectangle to reset raster location at 0,0
-             */
-            raster = render.getData(new Rectangle(render.getMinX(), render.getMinY(), render.getWidth(), render.getHeight()));
+    public static int getDataType(final List<SampleDimension> targets, final boolean converted) {
+        NumberRange<?> union = null;
+        for (final SampleDimension dimension : targets) {
+            final Optional<NumberRange<?>> c = dimension.getSampleRange();
+            if (c.isPresent()) {
+                final NumberRange<?> range = c.get();
+                if (union == null) {
+                    union = range;
+                } else {
+                    union = union.unionAny(range);
+                }
+            }
         }
-        final SampleModel baseSm = raster.getSampleModel();
-        final DataBuffer dataBuffer = raster.getDataBuffer();
-        final SampleConverter convSm = new SampleConverter(baseSm, toConverted, toPacked);
-        final WritableRaster convRaster = WritableRaster.createWritableRaster(convSm, dataBuffer, null);
-        /*
-         * The default color models have a lot of constraints. Use a custom model with relaxed rules instead.
-         * We arbitrarily use the range of values of the first band only; a future Apache SIS version will
-         * need to perform another calculation.
-         */
-        final ColorModel cm = new ScaledColorModel(getSampleDimensions().get(0).getSampleRange().get());
-        return new BufferedImage(cm, convRaster, false, null);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns the packed coverage if {@code converted} is {@code false}, or {@code this} otherwise.
-     */
-    @Override
-    public GridCoverage forConvertedValues(final boolean converted) {
-        return converted ? this : packed;
+        return RasterFactory.getDataType(union, converted);
     }
 
     /**
-     * A sample model which convert sample values on the fly.
+     * Returns a sequence of double values for a given point in the coverage.
+     * This method delegates to the source coverage, then convert values.
      *
-     * <p><b>WARNING: this is a temporary class.</b>
-     * This sample model does not only define the sample layout (pixel stride, scanline stride, <i>etc.</i>), but
-     * also converts the sample values. This may be an issue for optimized pipelines accessing {@link DataBuffer}
-     * directly. This class may be replaced by another mechanism (creating new tiles) in a future SIS version.</p>
+     * @param  point   the coordinate point where to evaluate.
+     * @param  buffer  an array in which to store values, or {@code null} to create a new array.
+     * @return the {@code buffer} array, or a newly created array if {@code buffer} was null.
+     * @throws CannotEvaluateException if the values can not be computed.
      */
-    private static final class SampleConverter extends SampleModel {
-
-        private final SampleModel base;
-        private final int baseDataType;
-        private final MathTransform1D[] toConverted;
-        private final MathTransform1D[] toPacked;
-
-        SampleConverter(SampleModel base, MathTransform1D[] toConverted, MathTransform1D[] toPacked) {
-            super(DataBuffer.TYPE_FLOAT, base.getWidth(), base.getHeight(), base.getNumBands());
-            this.base         = base;
-            this.baseDataType = base.getDataType();
-            this.toConverted  = toConverted;
-            this.toPacked     = toPacked;
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public int getNumDataElements() {
-            return base.getNumDataElements();
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public Object getDataElements(final int x, final int y, final Object obj, final DataBuffer data) {
-            final Object buffer = base.getDataElements(x, y, null, data);
-            final float[] pixel;
-            if (obj == null) {
-                pixel = new float[numBands];
-            } else if (!(obj instanceof float[])) {
-                throw new ClassCastException("Unsupported array type, expecting a float array.");
-            } else {
-                pixel = (float[]) obj;
-            }
-            switch (baseDataType) {
-                case DataBuffer.TYPE_BYTE: {
-                    final byte[] b = (byte[]) buffer;
-                    for (int i = 0; i < b.length; i++) pixel[i] = b[i];
-                    break;
-                }
-                case DataBuffer.TYPE_SHORT: {
-                    final short[] b = (short[]) buffer;
-                    for (int i = 0; i < b.length; i++) pixel[i] = b[i];
-                    break;
-                }
-                case DataBuffer.TYPE_USHORT: {
-                    final short[] b = (short[]) buffer;
-                    for (int i = 0; i < b.length; i++) pixel[i] = Short.toUnsignedInt(b[i]);
-                    break;
-                }
-                case DataBuffer.TYPE_INT: {
-                    final int[] b = (int[]) buffer;
-                    for (int i = 0; i < b.length; i++) pixel[i] = b[i];
-                    break;
-                }
-                case DataBuffer.TYPE_FLOAT: {
-                    final float[] b = (float[]) buffer;
-                    System.arraycopy(b, 0, pixel, 0, b.length);
-                    break;
-                }
-                case DataBuffer.TYPE_DOUBLE: {
-                    final double[] b = (double[]) buffer;
-                    for (int i = 0; i < b.length; i++) pixel[i] = (float) b[i];
-                    break;
-                }
-                default: {
-                    throw new ClassCastException("Unsupported base array type.");
-                }
-            }
-            try {
-                for (int i=0; i<toConverted.length; i++) {
-                    pixel[i] = (float) toConverted[i].transform(pixel[i]);
-                }
-            } catch (TransformException ex) {
-                Arrays.fill(pixel, Float.NaN);
-            }
-            return pixel;
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public void setDataElements(final int x, final int y, final Object obj, final DataBuffer data) {
-            float[] pixel;
-            Objects.requireNonNull(obj);
-            if (!(obj instanceof float[])) {
-                throw new ClassCastException("Unsupported array type, expecting a float array.");
-            } else {
-                pixel = (float[]) obj;
-            }
-            try {
-                for (int i=0; i<toConverted.length; i++) {
-                    pixel[i] = (float) toPacked[i].transform(pixel[i]);
-                }
-            } catch (TransformException ex) {
-                Arrays.fill(pixel, Float.NaN);
-            }
-            switch (baseDataType) {
-                case DataBuffer.TYPE_BYTE: {
-                    final byte[] b = new byte[pixel.length];
-                    for (int i = 0; i < b.length; i++) b[i] = (byte) pixel[i];
-                    base.setDataElements(x, y, b, data);
-                    break;
-                }
-                case DataBuffer.TYPE_SHORT: {
-                    final short[] b = new short[pixel.length];
-                    for (int i = 0; i < b.length; i++) b[i] = (short) pixel[i];
-                    base.setDataElements(x, y, b, data);
-                    break;
-                }
-                case DataBuffer.TYPE_USHORT: {
-                    final short[] b = new short[pixel.length];
-                    for (int i = 0; i < b.length; i++) b[i] = (short) pixel[i];
-                    base.setDataElements(x, y, b, data);
-                    break;
-                }
-                case DataBuffer.TYPE_INT: {
-                    final int[] b = new int[pixel.length];
-                    for (int i = 0; i < b.length; i++) b[i] = (int) pixel[i];
-                    base.setDataElements(x, y, b, data);
-                    break;
-                }
-                case DataBuffer.TYPE_FLOAT: {
-                    base.setDataElements(x, y, pixel, data);
-                    break;
-                }
-                case DataBuffer.TYPE_DOUBLE: {
-                    final double[] b = new double[pixel.length];
-                    for (int i = 0 ;i < b.length; i++) b[i] = pixel[i];
-                    base.setDataElements(x, y, b, data);
-                    break;
-                }
-                default: {
-                    throw new ClassCastException("Unsupported base array type.");
-                }
-            }
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public int getSample(int x, int y, int b, DataBuffer data) {
-            return (int) getSampleDouble(x, y, b, data);
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public float getSampleFloat(int x, int y, int b, DataBuffer data) {
-            try {
-                return (float) toConverted[b].transform(base.getSampleFloat(x, y, b, data));
-            } catch (TransformException ex) {
-                return Float.NaN;
-            }
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public double getSampleDouble(int x, int y, int b, DataBuffer data) {
-            try {
-                return toConverted[b].transform(base.getSampleDouble(x, y, b, data));
-            } catch (TransformException ex) {
-                return Double.NaN;
-            }
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public void setSample(int x, int y, int b, int s, DataBuffer data) {
-            setSample(x,y,b, (double) s, data);
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public void setSample(int x, int y, int b, double s, DataBuffer data) {
-            try {
-                s = toPacked[b].transform(s);
-            } catch (TransformException ex) {
-                s = Double.NaN;
-            }
-            base.setSample(x, y, b, s, data);
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public void setSample(int x, int y, int b, float s, DataBuffer data) {
-            setSample(x, y, b, (double) s, data);
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public SampleModel createCompatibleSampleModel(int w, int h) {
-            final SampleModel cp = base.createCompatibleSampleModel(w, h);
-            return new SampleConverter(cp, toConverted, toPacked);
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public SampleModel createSubsetSampleModel(int[] bands) {
-            final SampleModel cp = base.createSubsetSampleModel(bands);
-            final MathTransform1D[] trs = new MathTransform1D[bands.length];
-            final MathTransform1D[] ivtrs = new MathTransform1D[bands.length];
-            for (int i=0; i<bands.length;i++) {
-                trs[i] = toConverted[bands[i]];
-                ivtrs[i] = toPacked[bands[i]];
+    @Override
+    public double[] evaluate(final DirectPosition point, double[] buffer) throws CannotEvaluateException {
+        try {
+            buffer = source.evaluate(point, buffer);
+            for (int i=0; i<converters.length; i++) {
+                buffer[i] = converters[i].transform(buffer[i]);
             }
-            return new SampleConverter(cp, trs, ivtrs);
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public DataBuffer createDataBuffer() {
-            return base.createDataBuffer();
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public int[] getSampleSize() {
-            final int[] sizes = new int[numBands];
-            Arrays.fill(sizes, Float.SIZE);
-            return sizes;
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public int getSampleSize(int band) {
-            return Float.SIZE;
+        } catch (TransformException ex) {
+            throw new CannotEvaluateException(ex.getMessage(), ex);
         }
+        return buffer;
     }
 
     /**
-     * Color model for working with {@link SampleConverter}.
-     * Defined as a workaround for the validations normally performed by {@link ColorModel}.
+     * Creates a converted view over {@link #source} data for the given extent.
+     * Values will be converted when first requested on a tile-by-tile basis.
+     * Note that if the returned image is discarded, then the cache of converted
+     * tiles will be discarded too.
      *
-     * <p><b>WARNING: this is a temporary class.</b>
-     * This color model disable validations normally performed by {@link ColorModel}, in order to enable the use
-     * of {@link SampleConverter}. This class may be replaced by another mechanism (creating new tiles) in
-     * a future SIS version.</p>
-     *
-     * @see ScaledColorSpace
+     * @return the grid slice as a rendered image with converted view.
      */
-    private static final class ScaledColorModel extends ColorModel {
-
-        private final float scale;
-        private final float offset;
-
-        /**
-         * Creates a new color model for the given of converted values.
+    @Override
+    public RenderedImage render(final GridExtent sliceExtent) {
+        RenderedImage image = source.render(sliceExtent);
+        /*
+         * That image should never be null. But if an implementation wants to do so, respect that.
          */
-        ScaledColorModel(final NumberRange<?> range){
-            super(Float.SIZE);
-            final double scale  = (255.0) / (range.getMaxDouble() - range.getMinDouble());
-            this.scale  = (float) scale;
-            this.offset = (float) (range.getMinDouble() / scale);
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public boolean isCompatibleRaster(Raster raster) {
-            return isCompatibleSampleModel(raster.getSampleModel());
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public boolean isCompatibleSampleModel(SampleModel sm) {
-            return sm instanceof SampleConverter;
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public int getRGB(Object inData) {
-            float value;
-            // Most used cases. Compatible color model is designed for cases where indexColorModel cannot do the job (float or int samples).
-            if (inData instanceof float[]) {
-                value = ((float[]) inData)[0];
-            } else if (inData instanceof int[]) {
-                value = ((int[]) inData)[0];
-            } else if (inData instanceof double[]) {
-                value = (float) ((double[]) inData)[0];
-            } else if (inData instanceof byte[]) {
-                value = ((byte[]) inData)[0];
-            } else if (inData instanceof short[]) {
-                value = ((short[]) inData)[0];
-            } else if (inData instanceof long[]) {
-                value = ((long[]) inData)[0];
-            } else if (inData instanceof Number[]) {
-                value = ((Number[]) inData)[0].floatValue();
-            } else if (inData instanceof Byte[]) {
-                value = ((Byte[]) inData)[0];
-            } else {
-                value = 0.0f;
-            }
-
-            int c = (int) ((value - offset) * scale);
-            if (c < 0) c = 0;
-            else if (c > 255) c = 255;
-
-            return (255 << 24) | (c << 16) | (c << 8) | c;
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public int getRed(int pixel) {
-            final int argb = getRGB((Object) pixel);
-            return 0xFF & (argb >>> 16);
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public int getGreen(int pixel) {
-            final int argb = getRGB((Object) pixel);
-            return 0xFF & (argb >>> 8);
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public int getBlue(int pixel) {
-            final int argb = getRGB((Object) pixel);
-            return 0xFF & argb;
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public int getAlpha(int pixel) {
-            final int argb = getRGB((Object) pixel);
-            return 0xFF & (argb >>> 24);
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public int getRed(Object pixel) {
-            final int argb = getRGB(pixel);
-            return 0xFF & (argb >>> 16);
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public int getGreen(Object pixel) {
-            final int argb = getRGB(pixel);
-            return 0xFF & (argb >>> 8);
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public int getBlue(Object pixel) {
-            final int argb = getRGB(pixel);
-            return 0xFF & argb;
-        }
-
-        @Override
-        public int getAlpha(Object pixel) {
-            final int argb = getRGB(pixel);
-            return 0xFF & (argb >>> 24);
+        if (image != null) {
+            image = new BandedSampleConverter(image, null, dataType, converters);
         }
+        return image;
+    }
 
-        /*
-         * createCompatibleWritableRaster(int w, int h) not implemented for this class.
-         */
+    /**
+     * Returns this coverage or the source coverage depending on whether {@code converted} matches
+     * the kind of content of this coverage.
+     */
+    @Override
+    public GridCoverage forConvertedValues(final boolean converted) {
+        return (converted == isConverted) ? this : source;
     }
 }
diff --git a/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/RasterFactory.java b/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/RasterFactory.java
index 527e69a..0b96c0b 100644
--- a/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/RasterFactory.java
+++ b/core/sis-feature/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/RasterFactory.java
@@ -35,6 +35,7 @@ import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;
 import java.nio.Buffer;
 import java.nio.ReadOnlyBufferException;
 import org.apache.sis.internal.feature.Resources;
+import org.apache.sis.measure.NumberRange;
 import org.apache.sis.util.ArgumentChecks;
 import org.apache.sis.util.ArraysExt;
 import org.apache.sis.util.Numbers;
@@ -42,6 +43,8 @@ import org.apache.sis.util.Static;
 import org.apache.sis.util.Workaround;
 import org.apache.sis.util.collection.WeakHashSet;
 
+import static org.apache.sis.internal.util.Numerics.MAX_INTEGER_CONVERTIBLE_TO_FLOAT;
+
 
 /**
  * Creates rasters from given properties. Contains also convenience methods for
@@ -211,15 +214,63 @@ public final class RasterFactory extends Static {
      * @param  unsigned  whether the type should be considered unsigned.
      * @return the {@link DataBuffer} type, or {@link DataBuffer#TYPE_UNDEFINED}.
      */
-    public static int getType(final Class<?> sample, final boolean unsigned) {
+    public static int getDataType(final Class<?> sample, final boolean unsigned) {
         switch (Numbers.getEnumConstant(sample)) {
-            case Numbers.BYTE:    if (unsigned) return DataBuffer.TYPE_BYTE; else break;
-            case Numbers.SHORT:   return unsigned ? DataBuffer.TYPE_USHORT : DataBuffer.TYPE_SHORT;
-            case Numbers.INTEGER: if (!unsigned) return DataBuffer.TYPE_INT; else break;
+            case Numbers.BYTE:    return unsigned ? DataBuffer.TYPE_BYTE      : DataBuffer.TYPE_SHORT;
+            case Numbers.SHORT:   return unsigned ? DataBuffer.TYPE_USHORT    : DataBuffer.TYPE_SHORT;
+            case Numbers.INTEGER: return unsigned ? DataBuffer.TYPE_UNDEFINED : DataBuffer.TYPE_INT;
             case Numbers.FLOAT:   return DataBuffer.TYPE_FLOAT;
             case Numbers.DOUBLE:  return DataBuffer.TYPE_DOUBLE;
+            default:              return DataBuffer.TYPE_UNDEFINED;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the {@link DataBuffer} constant for the given range of values.
+     * If {@code keepFloat} is {@code false}, then this method tries to return
+     * an integer type regardless if the range uses a floating point type.
+     * Range checks for integers assume ties rounding to positive infinity.
+     *
+     * @param  range      the range of values, or {@code null}.
+     * @param  keepFloat  whether to avoid integer types if the range uses floating point numbers.
+     * @return the {@link DataBuffer} type or {@link DataBuffer#TYPE_UNDEFINED} if the given range was null.
+     */
+    static int getDataType(final NumberRange<?> range, final boolean keepFloat) {
+        if (range == null) {
+            return DataBuffer.TYPE_UNDEFINED;
+        }
+        final byte nt = Numbers.getEnumConstant(range.getElementType());
+        if (keepFloat) {
+            if (nt >= Numbers.DOUBLE)   return DataBuffer.TYPE_DOUBLE;
+            if (nt >= Numbers.FRACTION) return DataBuffer.TYPE_FLOAT;
+        }
+        final double min = range.getMinDouble();
+        final double max = range.getMaxDouble();
+        if (nt < Numbers.BYTE || nt > Numbers.FLOAT || nt == Numbers.LONG) {
+            /*
+             * Value type is long, double, BigInteger, BigDecimal or unknown type.
+             * If conversions to 32 bits integers would lost integer digits, or if
+             * a bound is NaN, stick to the most conservative data buffer type.
+             *
+             * Range check assumes ties rounding to positive infinity.
+             */
+            if (!(min >= -MAX_INTEGER_CONVERTIBLE_TO_FLOAT - 0.5 && max < MAX_INTEGER_CONVERTIBLE_TO_FLOAT + 0.5)) {
+                return DataBuffer.TYPE_DOUBLE;
+            }
+        }
+        /*
+         * Check most common types first. If the range could be both signed and unsigned short,
+         * give precedence to unsigned short because it works better with IndexColorModel.
+         * If a bounds is NaN, fallback on TYPE_FLOAT.
+         */
+        if (min >= -0.5 && max < 0xFFFF + 0.5) {
+            return (max < 0xFF + 0.5) ? DataBuffer.TYPE_BYTE : DataBuffer.TYPE_USHORT;
+        } else if (min >= Short.MIN_VALUE - 0.5 && max < Short.MAX_VALUE + 0.5) {
+            return DataBuffer.TYPE_SHORT;
+        } else if (min >= Integer.MIN_VALUE - 0.5 && max < Integer.MAX_VALUE + 0.5) {
+            return DataBuffer.TYPE_INT;
         }
-        return DataBuffer.TYPE_UNDEFINED;
+        return DataBuffer.TYPE_FLOAT;
     }
 
     /**
diff --git a/core/sis-feature/src/test/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage2DTest.java b/core/sis-feature/src/test/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage2DTest.java
index 3841c68..83ccc1d 100644
--- a/core/sis-feature/src/test/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage2DTest.java
+++ b/core/sis-feature/src/test/java/org/apache/sis/coverage/grid/GridCoverage2DTest.java
@@ -80,10 +80,10 @@ public final strictfp class GridCoverage2DTest extends TestCase {
     }
 
     /**
-     * Tests {@link GridCoverage2D#forConvertedValues(boolean)}.
+     * Tests reading the values provided by {@link GridCoverage2D#forConvertedValues(boolean)}.
      */
     @Test
-    public void testForConvertedValues() {
+    public void testReadConvertedValues() {
         GridCoverage coverage = createTestCoverage();
         /*
          * Verify packed values.
@@ -100,6 +100,20 @@ public final strictfp class GridCoverage2DTest extends TestCase {
             {101.0, 102.5},
             { 97.5,  95.0}
         });
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Tests writing values in {@link GridCoverage2D#forConvertedValues(boolean)}.
+     */
+    @Test
+    @org.junit.Ignore("BandedSampleConverter is not yet writable")
+    public void testWriteConvertedValues() {
+        GridCoverage coverage = createTestCoverage();
+        coverage = coverage.forConvertedValues(true);
+        assertSamplesEqual(coverage, new double[][] {
+            {101.0, 102.5},
+            { 97.5,  95.0}
+        });
         /*
          * Test writing converted values and verify the result in the packed coverage.
          * For example for the sample value at (0,0), we have (p is the packed value):
diff --git a/core/sis-feature/src/test/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/BufferedGridCoverageTest.java b/core/sis-feature/src/test/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/BufferedGridCoverageTest.java
index 2d2b748..858ff12 100644
--- a/core/sis-feature/src/test/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/BufferedGridCoverageTest.java
+++ b/core/sis-feature/src/test/java/org/apache/sis/internal/coverage/j2d/BufferedGridCoverageTest.java
@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@ import org.opengis.coverage.PointOutsideCoverageException;
  * Tests the {@link BufferedGridCoverage} implementation.
  *
  * @author  Johann Sorel (Geomatys)
- * @version 1.0
+ * @version 1.1
  * @since   1.0
  * @module
  */
@@ -93,6 +93,7 @@ public class BufferedGridCoverageTest extends TestCase {
          *
          *   70 = x * 0.5 + 100   →   (70-100)/0.5 = x   →   x = -60
          */
+        if (true) return;   // TODO
         raster = ((BufferedImage) coverage.render(null)).getRaster();
         raster.setSample(0, 0, 0,  70);
         raster.setSample(1, 0, 0,   2.5);
diff --git a/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/util/Numerics.java b/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/util/Numerics.java
index 6222ef7..5bd16e0 100644
--- a/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/util/Numerics.java
+++ b/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/internal/util/Numerics.java
@@ -149,6 +149,13 @@ public final class Numerics extends Static {
     public static final int SIGNIFICAND_SIZE_OF_FLOAT = 23;
 
     /**
+     * Maximal integer value which is convertible to {@code float} type without lost of precision digits.
+     *
+     * @since 1.1
+     */
+    public static final int MAX_INTEGER_CONVERTIBLE_TO_FLOAT = 1 << (SIGNIFICAND_SIZE_OF_FLOAT + 1);
+
+    /**
      * Do not allow instantiation of this class.
      */
     private Numerics() {


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