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From desruisse...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1767577 [13/15] - in /sis/trunk: ./ application/ application/sis-console/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/console/ application/sis-openoffice/ application/sis-openoffice/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/openoffice/ core/ core/sis-feature/src/main/...
Date Tue, 01 Nov 2016 21:03:08 GMT
Modified: sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/measure/Units.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/measure/Units.java?rev=1767577&r1=1767576&r2=1767577&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/measure/Units.java [UTF-8] (original)
+++ sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/measure/Units.java [UTF-8] Tue Nov  1 21:03:06 2016
@@ -16,157 +16,919 @@
  */
 package org.apache.sis.measure;
 
-import javax.measure.unit.SI;
-import javax.measure.unit.NonSI;
-import javax.measure.unit.Unit;
-import javax.measure.quantity.Angle;
-import javax.measure.quantity.Length;
-import javax.measure.quantity.Duration;
-import javax.measure.quantity.Dimensionless;
-import javax.measure.quantity.Quantity;
-import javax.measure.converter.UnitConverter;
+import javax.measure.Dimension;
+import javax.measure.Unit;
+import javax.measure.UnitConverter;
+import javax.measure.format.ParserException;
+import javax.measure.Quantity;
+import javax.measure.quantity.*;
+import javax.measure.quantity.Angle;            // Because of name collision with Angle in this SIS package.
+import org.opengis.geometry.DirectPosition;     // For javadoc
+
 import org.apache.sis.util.Static;
 import org.apache.sis.util.Workaround;
-import org.apache.sis.util.ArraysExt;
-import org.apache.sis.util.Exceptions;
-import org.apache.sis.util.CharSequences;
 import org.apache.sis.util.resources.Errors;
-import org.apache.sis.internal.util.DefinitionURI;
 import org.apache.sis.internal.util.Constants;
-import org.apache.sis.internal.util.XPaths;
 
 import static java.lang.Math.PI;
 import static java.lang.Math.abs;
 import static org.apache.sis.measure.SexagesimalConverter.EPS;
-import static org.apache.sis.util.CharSequences.trimWhitespaces;
 
 
 /**
- * Static methods working on {@link Unit} instances, and some constants in addition to the
- * {@link SI} and {@link NonSI} ones.
+ * Provides constants for various Units of Measurement together with static methods working on {@link Unit} instances.
+ * This class focuses on the most commonly used units in the geospatial domain:
+ * angular units ({@linkplain #DEGREE degree}, {@linkplain #ARC_SECOND arc-second}, …),
+ * linear units ({@linkplain #KILOMETRE kilometre}, {@linkplain #NAUTICAL_MILE nautical mile}, …) and
+ * temporal units ({@linkplain #DAY day}, {@linkplain #TROPICAL_YEAR year}, …).
+ * But some other kind of units are also provided for completeness.
+ *
+ * <p>All Units of Measurement are based on units from the International System (SI).
+ * The fundamental units are listed below, together with some dimensionless units:</p>
+ *
+ * <table class="sis">
+ *   <caption>SI fundamental units and dimensionless units</caption>
+ *   <tr><th>Quantity type</th>       <th>Dimension symbol</th> <th>Base unit</th></tr>
+ *   <tr><td>{@link Length}</td>            <td>L</td>          <td>{@link #METRE}</td></tr>
+ *   <tr><td>{@link Mass}</td>              <td>M</td>          <td>{@link #KILOGRAM}</td></tr>
+ *   <tr><td>{@link Time}</td>              <td>T</td>          <td>{@link #SECOND}</td></tr>
+ *   <tr><td>{@link ElectricCurrent}</td>   <td>I</td>          <td>{@link #AMPERE}</td></tr>
+ *   <tr><td>{@link Temperature}</td>       <td>Θ</td>          <td>{@link #KELVIN}</td></tr>
+ *   <tr><td>{@link AmountOfSubstance}</td> <td>N</td>          <td>{@link #MOLE}</td></tr>
+ *   <tr><td>{@link LuminousIntensity}</td> <td>J</td>          <td>{@link #CANDELA}</td></tr>
+ *   <tr><td>{@link Angle}</td>             <td></td>           <td>{@link #RADIAN}</td></tr>
+ * </table>
+ *
+ * Unit names and definitions in this class follow the definitions provided in the EPSG geodetic dataset
+ * (when the unit exists in that dataset),
+ * except “year” which has been renamed “{@linkplain #TROPICAL_YEAR tropical year}”.
  *
  * @author  Martin Desruisseaux (IRD, Geomatys)
  * @since   0.3
- * @version 0.7
+ * @version 0.8
  * @module
  */
 public final class Units extends Static {
     /**
-     * The suffixes that NetCDF files sometime put after the "degrees" unit.
-     * Suffix at even index are for axes having the standard geometric direction,
-     * while suffix at odd index are for axes having the reverse direction.
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 10<sup>-9</sup> metres (1 nm). This unit is often used in
+     * {@linkplain org.apache.sis.metadata.iso.content.DefaultBand#getBoundUnits() wavelength measurements}.
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #METRE}
+     * and the unlocalized name is "nanometre".
+     *
+     * @see #CENTIMETRE
+     * @see #MILLIMETRE
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
      */
-    private static final String[] CARDINAL_DIRECTIONS = {"east", "west", "north", "south"};
+    public static final Unit<Length> NANOMETRE;
 
     /**
-     * Do not allows instantiation of this class.
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 0.001 metres (1 mm).
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #METRE},
+     * the unlocalized name is “millimetre” and the identifier is EPSG:1025.
+     *
+     * @see #NANOMETRE
+     * @see #CENTIMETRE
+     * @see #KILOMETRE
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
      */
-    private Units() {
-    }
+    public static final Unit<Length> MILLIMETRE;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 0.01 metres (1 cm).
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #METRE},
+     * the unlocalized name is “centimetre” and the identifier is EPSG:1033.
+     *
+     * @see #NANOMETRE
+     * @see #MILLIMETRE
+     * @see #KILOMETRE
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Length> CENTIMETRE;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI base unit for distances (m).
+     * The unlocalized name is “metre” and the identifier is EPSG:9001.
+     * This is the base of all other {@linkplain #isLinear(Unit) linear} units:
+     *
+     * {@link #NANOMETRE} (nm),
+     * {@link #MILLIMETRE} (mm),
+     * {@link #CENTIMETRE} (cm),
+     * {@link #KILOMETRE} (km),
+     * {@link #NAUTICAL_MILE} (M),
+     * {@link #STATUTE_MILE} (mi),
+     * {@link #US_SURVEY_FOOT},
+     * {@link #FOOT} (ft),
+     * {@link #INCH} (in) and
+     * {@link #POINT} (pt)
+     * among others.
+     *
+     * @see #SQUARE_METRE
+     * @see #CUBIC_METRE
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Length> METRE;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 1000 metres (1 km).
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #METRE},
+     * the unlocalized name is “kilometre” and the identifier is EPSG:9036.
+     *
+     * @see #STATUTE_MILE
+     * @see #NAUTICAL_MILE
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Length> KILOMETRE;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as exactly 1852 metres (1 M).
+     * This is approximatively the distance between two parallels of latitude
+     * separated by one {@linkplain #ARC_MINUTE arc-minute}.
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #METRE},
+     * the unlocalized name is “nautical mile” and the identifier is EPSG:9030.
+     *
+     * <p>There is no internationally agreed symbol for nautical mile. Apache SIS uses “M” in agreement with the
+     * International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) and the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM).
+     * But “NM” and “nmi” are also in use.</p>
+     *
+     * @see #STATUTE_MILE
+     * @see #KILOMETRE
+     * @see #ARC_MINUTE
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Length> NAUTICAL_MILE;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as exactly 1609.344 metres (1 mi).
+     * This unit is often named “mile” without qualifier, but Apache SIS uses “statute mile”
+     * for emphasing the difference with {@linkplain #NAUTICAL_MILE nautical mile}.
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #METRE}.
+     * The unlocalized name is “statute mile” but is localized as "international mile" in the US
+     * for avoiding confusion with the US survey mile.
+     * The identifier is EPSG:9093.
+     *
+     * @see #KILOMETRE
+     * @see #NAUTICAL_MILE
+     * @see #FOOT
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Length> STATUTE_MILE;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement approximatively equals to 0.3048006096… metres.
+     * The legal definition is exactly 12/39.37 metres.
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #METRE},
+     * the unlocalized name is “US survey foot” and the identifier is EPSG:9003.
+     *
+     * @see #FOOT
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Length> US_SURVEY_FOOT;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as exactly 0.3048 metres (1 ft).
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #METRE},
+     * the unlocalized name is “foot” and the identifier is EPSG:9002.
+     *
+     * @see #US_SURVEY_FOOT
+     * @see #STATUTE_MILE
+     * @see #INCH
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Length> FOOT;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 2.54 centimetres (1 in).
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #METRE}
+     * and the unlocalized name is “inch”.
+     *
+     * @see #CENTIMETRE
+     * @see #POINT
+     * @see #FOOT
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Length> INCH;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 0.013837 inch (1 pt).
+     * This is commonly used to measure the height of a font.
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #METRE}
+     * and the unlocalized name is “point”.
+     *
+     * @see #INCH
+     * @see #MILLIMETRE
+     * @see #PIXEL
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Length> POINT;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI unit for plane angles (rad).
+     * There is 2π radians in a circle.
+     * The unlocalized name is “radian” and the identifier is EPSG:9101.
+     * This is the base of all other {@linkplain #isAngular(Unit) angular} units:
+     *
+     * {@link #GRAD} (grad),
+     * {@link #DEGREE} (°),
+     * {@link #ARC_MINUTE} (′),
+     * {@link #ARC_SECOND} (″) and
+     * {@link #MICRORADIAN} (µrad)
+     * among others.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Angle> RADIAN;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as π/200 radians (1 grad).
+     * There is 400 grads in a circle.
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #RADIAN},
+     * the unlocalized name is “grad” and the identifier is EPSG:9105.
+     *
+     * @see #DEGREE
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Angle> GRAD;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as π/180 radians (1°).
+     * There is 360° in a circle.
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #RADIAN},
+     * the unlocalized name is “degree” and the identifier is EPSG:9102.
+     *
+     * @see #ARC_MINUTE
+     * @see #ARC_SECOND
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Angle> DEGREE;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 1/60 degree (1′).
+     * The distance of one arc-minute of latitude on Earth is approximatively 1852 metres
+     * (one {@linkplain #NAUTICAL_MILE nautical mile}).
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #RADIAN},
+     * the unlocalized name is “arc-minute” and the identifier is EPSG:9103.
+     *
+     * @see #DEGREE
+     * @see #ARC_SECOND
+     * @see #NAUTICAL_MILE
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Angle> ARC_MINUTE;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 1/(60×60) degree (1″).
+     * The distance of one arc-second of latitude on Earth is approximatively 31 metres.
+     * This unit of measurement is used for rotation terms in
+     * {@linkplain org.apache.sis.referencing.datum.BursaWolfParameters Bursa-Wolf parameters}.
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #RADIAN},
+     * the unlocalized name is “arc-second” and the identifier is EPSG:9104.
+     *
+     * @see #DEGREE
+     * @see #ARC_MINUTE
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Angle> ARC_SECOND;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 10<sup>-6</sup> radians (1 µrad).
+     * The distance of one microradian of latitude on Earth is approximatively 2 millimetres.
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #RADIAN},
+     * the unlocalized name is “microradian” and the identifier is EPSG:9109.
+     *
+     * @see #ARC_MINUTE
+     * @see #ARC_SECOND
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Angle> MICRORADIAN;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 10<sup>-3</sup> seconds (1 ms).
+     * This unit is useful for inter-operability with various methods from the standard Java library.
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #SECOND}
+     * and the unlocalized name is “millisecond”.
+     *
+     * @see java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit#MILLISECONDS
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Time> MILLISECOND;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI base unit for durations (s).
+     * The unlocalized name is “second” and the identifier is EPSG:1040.
+     * This is the base of all other {@linkplain #isTemporal(Unit) temporal} units:
+     *
+     * {@link #MILLISECOND} (ms),
+     * {@link #MINUTE} (min),
+     * {@link #HOUR} (h),
+     * {@link #DAY} (d),
+     * {@link #WEEK} (wk) and
+     * {@link #TROPICAL_YEAR} (a)
+     * among others.
+     *
+     * @see #HERTZ
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Time> SECOND;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 60 seconds (1 min).
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #SECOND}
+     * and the unlocalized name is “minute”.
+     *
+     * @see #SECOND
+     * @see #HOUR
+     * @see #DAY
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Time> MINUTE;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 60×60 seconds (1 h).
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #SECOND}
+     * and the unlocalized name is “hour”.
+     *
+     * @see #SECOND
+     * @see #MINUTE
+     * @see #DAY
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Time> HOUR;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 24×60×60 seconds (1 d).
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #SECOND}
+     * and the unlocalized name is “day”.
+     *
+     * @see #HOUR
+     * @see #WEEK
+     * @see #TROPICAL_YEAR
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Time> DAY;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 7 days (1 wk).
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #SECOND}
+     * and the unlocalized name is “week”.
+     *
+     * @see #DAY
+     * @see #TROPICAL_YEAR
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Time> WEEK;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement approximatively equals to 365.24219 days (1 a).
+     * This is defined by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) as exactly 31556925.445 seconds,
+     * taken as the length of the tropical year in the the year 2000.
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #SECOND},
+     * the unlocalized name is “year” and the identifier is EPSG:1029.
+     *
+     * @see #DAY
+     * @see #WEEK
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Time> TROPICAL_YEAR;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI derived unit for frequency (Hz).
+     * One hertz is equal to one cycle per second.
+     * The unlocalized name is “hertz”.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     *
+     * @see #SECOND
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Frequency> HERTZ;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI derived unit for pressure (Pa).
+     * One pascal is equal to 1 N/m².
+     * Pressures are often used in {@linkplain org.apache.sis.referencing.crs.DefaultParametricCRS parametric CRS}
+     * for height measurements on a vertical axis.
+     * The unlocalized name is “pascal”.
+     *
+     * @see #NEWTON
+     * @see #SQUARE_METRE
+     * @see #HECTOPASCAL
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Pressure> PASCAL;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 100 pascals (1 hPa).
+     * The hectopascal is the international unit for measuring atmospheric or barometric pressure.
+     * One hectopascal is exactly equal to one millibar.
+     * The unlocalized name is “hectopascal”.
+     *
+     * @see #PASCAL
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Pressure> HECTOPASCAL;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 10,000 square metres (1 ha).
+     * One hectare is exactly equals to one hectometre (1 hm²).
+     * While not an SI unit, the hectare is often used in the measurement of land.
+     * The unlocalized name is “hectare”.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     *
+     * @see #SQUARE_METRE
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Area> HECTARE;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI derived unit for area (m²).
+     * The unlocalized name is “square metre”.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     *
+     * @see #HECTARE
+     * @see #METRE
+     * @see #CUBIC_METRE
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Area> SQUARE_METRE;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI derived unit for volume (m³).
+     * The unlocalized name is “cubic metre”.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     *
+     * @see #METRE
+     * @see #SQUARE_METRE
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Volume> CUBIC_METRE;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI derived unit for speed (m/s).
+     * The unlocalized name is “metres per second” and the identifier is EPSG:1026.
+     *
+     * @see #METRE
+     * @see #SECOND
+     * @see #KILOMETRES_PER_HOUR
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Speed> METRES_PER_SECOND;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as 60/1000 metres per second (1 km/h).
+     * The unlocalized name is “kilometres per hour”.
+     *
+     * @see #KILOMETRE
+     * @see #HOUR
+     * @see #METRES_PER_SECOND
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Speed> KILOMETRES_PER_HOUR;
 
     /**
-     * Unit for milliseconds. Useful for conversion from and to {@link java.util.Date} objects.
+     * The SI base unit for mass (kg).
+     * The unlocalized name is “kilogram”.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Mass> KILOGRAM;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI base unit for electric current (A).
+     * The unlocalized name is “ampere”.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<ElectricCurrent> AMPERE;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI derived unit for force (N).
+     * One newton is the force required to give a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/s².
+     * The unlocalized name is “newton”.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     *
+     * @see #KILOGRAM
+     * @see #METRES_PER_SECOND
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Force> NEWTON;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI derived unit for energy (J).
+     * The unlocalized name is “joule”.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Energy> JOULE;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI derived unit for power (W).
+     * One watt is equal to one joule per second.
+     * The unlocalized name is “watt”.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Power> WATT;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI base unit for thermodynamic temperature (K).
+     * The unlocalized name is “kelvin”.
+     *
+     * @see #CELSIUS
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Temperature> KELVIN;
+
+    /**
+     * Unit of measurement defined as the temperature in Kelvin minus 273.15.
+     * The symbol is °C and the unlocalized name is “Celsius”.
+     * Note that this is the only SI unit with an upper-case letter in its name.
+     *
+     * @see #KELVIN
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Temperature> CELSIUS;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI base unit for luminous intensity (cd).
+     * The unlocalized name is “candela”.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<LuminousIntensity> CANDELA;
+
+    /**
+     * The SI base unit for amount of substance (mol).
+     * The unlocalized name is “mole”.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static final Unit<AmountOfSubstance> MOLE;
+
+    /**
+     * The base dimensionless unit for scale measurements.
+     * The unlocalized name is “unity” and the identifier is EPSG:9201.
+     * This is the base of all other {@linkplain #isScale(Unit) scale} units:
+     *
+     * {@link #PERCENT} (%),
+     * {@link #PPM} (ppm) and
+     * {@link #PIXEL} (px)
+     * among others.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
      */
-    public static final Unit<Duration> MILLISECOND = SI.MetricPrefix.MILLI(SI.SECOND);
+    public static final Unit<Dimensionless> UNITY;
 
     /**
-     * The EPSG:1029 definition of year.
+     * Dimensionless unit for percentages (%).
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #UNITY}
+     * and the unlocalized name is “percentage”.
+     *
+     * @see #UNITY
+     * @see #PPM
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
      */
-    private static final Unit<Duration> YEAR = SI.SECOND.divide(31556925.445);
+    public static final Unit<Dimensionless> PERCENT;
 
     /**
-     * Parts per million.
+     * Dimensionless unit for parts per million (ppm).
+     * The {@linkplain ConventionalUnit#getSystemUnit() system unit} is {@link #UNITY},
+     * the unlocalized name is “parts per million” and the identifier is EPSG:9202.
      *
-     * <p>This unit does not have an easily readable symbol because of the
-     * <a href="http://kenai.com/jira/browse/JSR_275-41">JSR-275 bug</a>.</p>
+     * @see #UNITY
+     * @see #PERCENT
      */
-    public static final Unit<Dimensionless> PPM = Unit.ONE.times(1E-6);//.alternate("ppm");
+    public static final Unit<Dimensionless> PPM;
 
     /**
      * Salinity measured using PSS-78. While this is a dimensionless measurement, the {@code "psu"} symbol
      * is sometime added to PSS-78 measurement. However this is officially discouraged.
+     *
+     * <p>If we make this field public in a future SIS version, we should consider introducing a
+     * {@code Salinity} quantity type.</p>
      */
-    static final Unit<Dimensionless> PSU = Unit.ONE.alternate("psu");
+    static final Unit<Dimensionless> PSU;
 
     /**
      * Sigma-level, used in oceanography. This is a way to measure a depth as a fraction of the sea floor depth.
+     *
+     * <p>If we make this field public in a future SIS version, we should consider introducing a new quantity type.
+     * The type to introduce has not yet been determined.</p>
      */
-    static final Unit<Dimensionless> SIGMA = Unit.ONE.alternate("sigma");
+    static final Unit<Dimensionless> SIGMA;
+
+    /**
+     * Dimensionless unit for pixels (px).
+     * The unlocalized name is “pixel”.
+     *
+     * @see #POINT
+     */
+    public static final Unit<Dimensionless> PIXEL;
+
+    /**
+     * Sets to {@code true} by the static initializer after the initialization has been completed.
+     * This is a safety against unexpected changes in the {@link UnitRegistry#HARD_CODED} map.
+     *
+     * <p>We use here a "lazy final initialization" pattern. We rely on the fact that this field is
+     * initialized to {@code true} only at the end of the following static initializer. All methods
+     * invoked in the static initializer will see the default value, which is {@code false}, until
+     * the initializer fully completed. While apparently dangerous, this behavior is actually documented
+     * in <a href="http://docs.oracle.com/javase/specs/jls/se8/html/jls-12.html#jls-12.4.1">section 12.4.1
+     * of Java language specification</a>:</p>
+     *
+     * <blockquote>The fact that initialization code is unrestricted allows examples to be constructed where
+     * the value of a class variable can be observed when it still has its initial default value, before its
+     * initializing expression is evaluated, but such examples are rare in practice. (…snip…) The full power
+     * of the Java programming language is available in these initializers; programmers must exercise some care.
+     * This power places an extra burden on code generators, but this burden would arise in any case because
+     * the Java programming language is concurrent.</blockquote>
+     */
+    static final boolean initialized;
+    static {
+        final UnitDimension length        = new UnitDimension('L');
+        final UnitDimension mass          = new UnitDimension('M');
+        final UnitDimension time          = new UnitDimension('T');
+        final UnitDimension electric      = new UnitDimension('I');
+        final UnitDimension temperature   = new UnitDimension('Θ');
+        final UnitDimension amount        = new UnitDimension('N');
+        final UnitDimension luminous      = new UnitDimension('J');
+        final UnitDimension area          = length.pow(2);
+        final UnitDimension speed         = length.divide(time);
+        final UnitDimension force         = mass.multiply(speed).divide(time);
+        final UnitDimension energy        = force.multiply(length);
+        final UnitDimension pressure      = force.divide(area);
+        final UnitDimension dimensionless = UnitDimension.NONE;
+        /*
+         * Base, derived or alternate units that we need to reuse more than once in this static initializer.
+         */
+        final SystemUnit<Length>        m   = add(Length.class,        length,        "m",   UnitRegistry.SI, Constants.EPSG_METRE);
+        final SystemUnit<Area>          m2  = add(Area.class,          area,          "m²",  UnitRegistry.SI, (short) 0);
+        final SystemUnit<Time>          s   = add(Time.class,          time,          "s",   UnitRegistry.SI, (short) 1040);
+        final SystemUnit<Temperature>   K   = add(Temperature.class,   temperature,   "K",   UnitRegistry.SI, (short) 0);
+        final SystemUnit<Speed>         mps = add(Speed.class,         speed,         "m∕s", UnitRegistry.SI, (short) 1026);
+        final SystemUnit<Pressure>      Pa  = add(Pressure.class,      pressure,      "Pa",  UnitRegistry.SI, (short) 0);
+        final SystemUnit<Angle>         rad = add(Angle.class,         dimensionless, "rad", UnitRegistry.SI, (short) 9101);
+        final SystemUnit<Dimensionless> one = add(Dimensionless.class, dimensionless, "",    UnitRegistry.SI, (short) 9201);
+        /*
+         * All SI prefix to be used below.
+         */
+        final LinearConverter nano  = LinearConverter.forPrefix('n');
+        final LinearConverter micro = LinearConverter.forPrefix('µ');
+        final LinearConverter milli = LinearConverter.forPrefix('m');
+        final LinearConverter centi = LinearConverter.forPrefix('c');
+        final LinearConverter hecto = LinearConverter.forPrefix('h');
+        final LinearConverter kilo  = LinearConverter.forPrefix('k');
+        /*
+         * All Unit<Angle>
+         * 20 is the greatest common denominator between 180 and 200. The intend is to have arguments as small
+         * as possible in the call to the scale(double, double) method, while keeping the right side integer.
+         * Staying closer to zero during conversions helo to reduce rounding errors.
+         */
+        rad.related(4);
+        RADIAN      = rad;
+        GRAD        = add(rad, LinearConverter.scale(Math.PI / 20, 200       / 20), "grad", UnitRegistry.OTHER,    (short) 9105);
+        DEGREE      = add(rad, LinearConverter.scale(Math.PI / 20, 180       / 20), "°",    UnitRegistry.ACCEPTED, Constants.EPSG_PARAM_DEGREES);
+        ARC_MINUTE  = add(rad, LinearConverter.scale(Math.PI / 20, 180*60    / 20), "′",    UnitRegistry.ACCEPTED, (short) 9103);
+        ARC_SECOND  = add(rad, LinearConverter.scale(Math.PI / 20, 180*60*60 / 20), "″",    UnitRegistry.ACCEPTED, (short) 9104);
+        MICRORADIAN = add(rad, micro,                                               "µrad", UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 9109);
+        /*
+         * All Unit<Length>
+         */
+        m.related(6);
+        METRE          = m;
+        NANOMETRE      = add(m, nano,                                     "nm",    UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 0);
+        MILLIMETRE     = add(m, milli,                                    "mm",    UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 1025);
+        CENTIMETRE     = add(m, centi,                                    "cm",    UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 1033);
+        KILOMETRE      = add(m, kilo,                                     "km",    UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 9036);
+        NAUTICAL_MILE  = add(m, LinearConverter.scale(   1852,        1), "M",     UnitRegistry.OTHER,    (short) 9030);
+        STATUTE_MILE   = add(m, LinearConverter.scale(1609344,      100), "mi",    UnitRegistry.IMPERIAL, (short) 9093);
+        US_SURVEY_FOOT = add(m, LinearConverter.scale(   1200,     3937), "ft_US", UnitRegistry.OTHER,    (short) 9003);
+        FOOT           = add(m, LinearConverter.scale(   3048,    10000), "ft",    UnitRegistry.IMPERIAL, (short) 9002);
+        INCH           = add(m, LinearConverter.scale(    254,    10000), "in",    UnitRegistry.IMPERIAL, (short) 0);
+        POINT          = add(m, LinearConverter.scale( 996264, 72000000), "pt",    UnitRegistry.OTHER,    (short) 0);
+        /*
+         * All Unit<Time>
+         */
+        s.related(5);
+        SECOND         = s;
+        MILLISECOND    = add(s, milli, "ms", UnitRegistry.SI, (short) 0);
+        MINUTE         = add(s, LinearConverter.scale(         60,      1), "min", UnitRegistry.ACCEPTED, (short) 0);
+        HOUR           = add(s, LinearConverter.scale(      60*60,      1), "h",   UnitRegistry.ACCEPTED, (short) 0);
+        DAY            = add(s, LinearConverter.scale(   24*60*60,      1), "d",   UnitRegistry.ACCEPTED, (short) 0);
+        WEEK           = add(s, LinearConverter.scale( 7*24*60*60,      1), "wk",  UnitRegistry.OTHER,    (short) 0);
+        TROPICAL_YEAR  = add(s, LinearConverter.scale(31556925445.0, 1000), "a",   UnitRegistry.OTHER,    (short) 1029);
+        /*
+         * Other units.
+         */
+        KELVIN              = K;
+        PASCAL              = Pa;
+        SQUARE_METRE        = m2;
+        METRES_PER_SECOND   = mps;
+        HERTZ               = add(Frequency.class,         time.pow(-1),           "Hz",   UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 0);
+        KILOGRAM            = add(Mass.class,              mass,                   "kg",   UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 0);
+        CUBIC_METRE         = add(Volume.class,            length.pow(3),          "m³",   UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 0);
+        AMPERE              = add(ElectricCurrent.class,   electric,               "A",    UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 0);
+        NEWTON              = add(Force.class,             force,                  "N",    UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 0);
+        JOULE               = add(Energy.class,            energy,                 "J",    UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 0);
+        WATT                = add(Power.class,             energy.divide(time),    "W",    UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 0);
+        CANDELA             = add(LuminousIntensity.class, luminous,               "cd",   UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 0);
+        MOLE                = add(AmountOfSubstance.class, amount,                 "mol",  UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 0);
+        HECTOPASCAL         = add(Pa,  hecto,                                      "hPa",  UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 0);
+        HECTARE             = add(m2,  LinearConverter.scale(10000, 1),            "ha",   UnitRegistry.ACCEPTED, (short) 0);
+        KILOMETRES_PER_HOUR = add(mps, LinearConverter.scale(6, 100),              "km∕h", UnitRegistry.ACCEPTED, (short) 0);
+        CELSIUS             = add(K,   LinearConverter.offset(27315, 100),         "°C",   UnitRegistry.SI,       (short) 0);
+        /*
+         * All Unit<Dimensionless>
+         */
+        PERCENT = add(one, centi,                         "%",     UnitRegistry.OTHER, (short) 0);
+        PPM     = add(one, micro,                         "ppm",   UnitRegistry.OTHER, (short) 9202);
+        PSU     = add(Dimensionless.class, dimensionless, "psu",   UnitRegistry.OTHER, (short) 0);
+        SIGMA   = add(Dimensionless.class, dimensionless, "sigma", UnitRegistry.OTHER, (short) 0);
+        PIXEL   = add(Dimensionless.class, dimensionless, "px",    UnitRegistry.OTHER, (short) 0);
+        UNITY   = UnitRegistry.init(one);  // Must be last in order to take precedence over all other units associated to UnitDimension.NONE.
+
+        UnitRegistry.alias(UNITY,       Short.valueOf((short) 9203));
+        UnitRegistry.alias(DEGREE,      Short.valueOf(Constants.EPSG_AXIS_DEGREES));
+        UnitRegistry.alias(ARC_MINUTE,  "'");
+        UnitRegistry.alias(ARC_SECOND, "\"");
+        UnitRegistry.alias(KELVIN,      "K");       // Ordinary "K" letter (not the dedicated Unicode character).
+        UnitRegistry.alias(CELSIUS,     "℃");
+        UnitRegistry.alias(CELSIUS,   "Cel");
+        UnitRegistry.alias(GRAD,      "gon");
+        UnitRegistry.alias(HECTARE,   "hm²");
+        UnitRegistry.alias(UNITY,       "1");
+
+        initialized = true;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Invoked by {@code Units} static class initializer for registering SI base and derived units.
+     * This method shall be invoked in a single thread by the {@code Units} class initializer only.
+     */
+    private static <Q extends Quantity<Q>> SystemUnit<Q> add(Class<Q> quantity, UnitDimension dimension, String symbol, byte scope, short epsg) {
+        return UnitRegistry.init(new SystemUnit<>(quantity, dimension, symbol, scope, epsg));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Invoked by {@code Units} static class initializer for registering SI conventional units.
+     * This method shall be invoked in a single thread by the {@code Units} class initializer only.
+     */
+    private static <Q extends Quantity<Q>> ConventionalUnit<Q> add(SystemUnit<Q> target, UnitConverter toTarget, String symbol, byte scope, short epsg) {
+        final ConventionalUnit<Q> unit = UnitRegistry.init(new ConventionalUnit<>(target, toTarget, symbol, scope, epsg));
+        final ConventionalUnit<Q>[] related = target.related;
+        if (related != null && unit.scope != UnitRegistry.SI) {
+            // Search first empty slot. This algorithm is inefficient, but the length of those arrays is small (<= 6).
+            int i = 0;
+            while (related[i] != null) i++;
+            related[i] = unit;
+        }
+        return unit;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the system unit for the given dimension, or {@code null} if none.
+     * Note that this method can not distinguish the different kinds of dimensionless units.
+     * If the symbol or the quantity type is known, use {@link #get(String)} or {@link #get(Class)} instead.
+     *
+     * <p><b>Implementation note:</b> this method must be defined in this {@code Units} class
+     * in order to force a class initialization before use.</p>
+     */
+    static SystemUnit<?> get(final Dimension dim) {
+        return (SystemUnit<?>) UnitRegistry.get(dim);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the system unit for the given quantity, or {@code null} if none.
+     *
+     * <p><b>Implementation note:</b> this method must be defined in this {@code Units} class
+     * in order to force a class initialization before use.</p>
+     */
+    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+    static <Q extends Quantity<Q>> SystemUnit<Q> get(final Class<Q> type) {
+        return (SystemUnit<Q>) UnitRegistry.get(type);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the system unit for the given symbol, or {@code null} if none.
+     * This method does not perform any parsing (prefix, exponents, <i>etc</i>).
+     * It is only for getting one of the pre-defined constants, for example after deserialization.
+     *
+     * <p><b>Implementation note:</b> this method must be defined in this {@code Units} class
+     * in order to force a class initialization before use.</p>
+     */
+    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
+    static Unit<?> get(final String symbol) {
+        return (Unit<?>) UnitRegistry.get(symbol);
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Do not allows instantiation of this class.
+     */
+    private Units() {
+    }
 
     /**
      * Returns {@code true} if the given unit is a linear unit.
-     * Linear units are convertible to {@link NonSI#DEGREE_ANGLE}.
+     * Linear units are convertible to {@link #DEGREE}.
      *
      * <p>Angular units are dimensionless, which may be a cause of confusion with other
-     * dimensionless units like {@link Unit#ONE} or {@link #PPM}. This method take care
+     * dimensionless units like {@link #UNITY} or {@link #PPM}. This method take care
      * of differentiating angular units from other dimensionless units.</p>
      *
-     * @param unit The unit to check (may be {@code null}).
+     * @param  unit  the unit to check (may be {@code null}).
      * @return {@code true} if the given unit is non-null and angular.
      *
      * @see #ensureAngular(Unit)
      */
     public static boolean isAngular(final Unit<?> unit) {
-        return (unit != null) && unit.toSI().equals(SI.RADIAN);
+        return (unit != null) && unit.getSystemUnit().equals(RADIAN);
     }
 
     /**
      * Returns {@code true} if the given unit is a linear unit.
-     * Linear units are convertible to {@link SI#METRE}.
+     * Linear units are convertible to {@link #METRE}.
      *
-     * @param unit The unit to check (may be {@code null}).
+     * @param  unit  the unit to check (may be {@code null}).
      * @return {@code true} if the given unit is non-null and linear.
      *
+     * @see #METRE
      * @see #ensureLinear(Unit)
      */
     public static boolean isLinear(final Unit<?> unit) {
-        return (unit != null) && unit.toSI().equals(SI.METRE);
+        return (unit != null) && unit.getSystemUnit().equals(METRE);
     }
 
     /**
      * Returns {@code true} if the given unit is a pressure unit.
-     * Pressure units are convertible to {@link SI#PASCAL}.
+     * Pressure units are convertible to {@link #PASCAL}.
      * Those units are sometime used instead of linear units for altitude measurements.
      *
-     * @param unit The unit to check (may be {@code null}).
+     * @param  unit  the unit to check (may be {@code null}).
      * @return {@code true} if the given unit is non-null and a pressure unit.
      */
     public static boolean isPressure(final Unit<?> unit) {
-        return (unit != null) && unit.toSI().equals(SI.PASCAL);
+        return (unit != null) && unit.getSystemUnit().equals(PASCAL);
     }
 
     /**
      * Returns {@code true} if the given unit is a temporal unit.
-     * Temporal units are convertible to {@link SI#SECOND}.
+     * Temporal units are convertible to {@link #SECOND}.
      *
-     * @param unit The unit to check (may be {@code null}).
+     * @param  unit  the unit to check (may be {@code null}).
      * @return {@code true} if the given unit is non-null and temporal.
      *
      * @see #ensureTemporal(Unit)
      */
     public static boolean isTemporal(final Unit<?> unit) {
-        return (unit != null) && unit.toSI().equals(SI.SECOND);
+        return (unit != null) && unit.getSystemUnit().equals(SECOND);
     }
 
     /**
      * Returns {@code true} if the given unit is a dimensionless scale unit.
-     * This include {@link Unit#ONE} and {@link #PPM}.
+     * This include {@link #UNITY} and {@link #PPM}.
      *
-     * @param unit The unit to check (may be {@code null}).
+     * @param  unit  the unit to check (may be {@code null}).
      * @return {@code true} if the given unit is non-null and a dimensionless scale.
      *
+     * @see #UNITY
      * @see #ensureScale(Unit)
      */
     public static boolean isScale(final Unit<?> unit) {
-        return (unit != null) && unit.toSI().equals(Unit.ONE);
+        return (unit != null) && unit.getSystemUnit().equals(UNITY);
     }
 
     /**
      * Makes sure that the specified unit is either null or an angular unit.
      * This method is used for argument checks in constructors and setter methods.
      *
-     * @param  unit The unit to check, or {@code null} if none.
-     * @return The given {@code unit} argument, which may be null.
+     * @param  unit  the unit to check, or {@code null} if none.
+     * @return the given {@code unit} argument, which may be null.
      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code unit} is non-null and not an angular unit.
      *
      * @see #isAngular(Unit)
@@ -183,8 +945,8 @@ public final class Units extends Static
      * Makes sure that the specified unit is either null or a linear unit.
      * This method is used for argument checks in constructors and setter methods.
      *
-     * @param  unit The unit to check, or {@code null} if none.
-     * @return The given {@code unit} argument, which may be null.
+     * @param  unit  the unit to check, or {@code null} if none.
+     * @return the given {@code unit} argument, which may be null.
      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code unit} is non-null and not a linear unit.
      *
      * @see #isLinear(Unit)
@@ -201,26 +963,26 @@ public final class Units extends Static
      * Makes sure that the specified unit is either null or a temporal unit.
      * This method is used for argument checks in constructors and setter methods.
      *
-     * @param  unit The unit to check, or {@code null} if none.
-     * @return The given {@code unit} argument, which may be null.
+     * @param  unit  the unit to check, or {@code null} if none.
+     * @return the given {@code unit} argument, which may be null.
      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code unit} is non-null and not a temporal unit.
      *
      * @see #isTemporal(Unit)
      */
     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
-    public static Unit<Duration> ensureTemporal(final Unit<?> unit) throws IllegalArgumentException {
+    public static Unit<Time> ensureTemporal(final Unit<?> unit) throws IllegalArgumentException {
         if (unit != null && !isTemporal(unit)) {
             throw new IllegalArgumentException(Errors.format(Errors.Keys.NonTemporalUnit_1, unit));
         }
-        return (Unit<Duration>) unit;
+        return (Unit<Time>) unit;
     }
 
     /**
      * Makes sure that the specified unit is either null or a scale unit.
      * This method is used for argument checks in constructors and setter methods.
      *
-     * @param  unit The unit to check, or {@code null} if none.
-     * @return The given {@code unit} argument, which may be null.
+     * @param  unit  the unit to check, or {@code null} if none.
+     * @return the given {@code unit} argument, which may be null.
      * @throws IllegalArgumentException if {@code unit} is non-null and not a scale unit.
      *
      * @see #isScale(Unit)
@@ -234,105 +996,162 @@ public final class Units extends Static
     }
 
     /**
-     * Multiplies the given unit by the given factor. For example multiplying {@link SI#METRE}
-     * by 1000 gives {@link SI#KILOMETRE}. Invoking this method is equivalent to invoking
-     * {@link Unit#times(double)} except for the following:
+     * Multiplies the given unit by the given ratio. For example multiplying {@link #CENTIMETRE} by 254/100 gives
+     * {@link #INCH}. Invoking this method is equivalent to invoking <code>{@linkplain Unit#multiply(double)
+     * Unit.multiply}(numerator / denominator)</code> except that the use of a ration of integer values help
+     * Apache SIS to improve accuracy when more than one arithmetic operation are chained.
+     *
+     * @param  <Q>          the quantity measured by the unit.
+     * @param  unit         the unit to multiply.
+     * @param  numerator    the numerator of the multiplication factor.
+     * @param  denominator  the denominator of the multiplication factor.
+     * @return the unit multiplied by the given factor.
+     *
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    public static <Q extends Quantity<Q>> Unit<Q> multiply(Unit<Q> unit, double numerator, double denominator) {
+        return unit.transform(LinearConverter.scale(numerator, denominator));
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Multiplies the given unit by the given factor. For example multiplying {@link #METRE}
+     * by 1000 gives {@link #KILOMETRE}. Invoking this method is equivalent to invoking
+     * {@link Unit#multiply(double)} except for the following:
      *
      * <ul>
      *   <li>A small tolerance factor is applied for a few factors commonly used in GIS.
-     *       For example {@code multiply(SI.RADIANS, 0.0174532925199...)} will return
-     *       {@link NonSI#DEGREE_ANGLE} even if the given numerical value is slightly
-     *       different than {@linkplain Math#PI pi}/180. The tolerance factor and the
-     *       set of units handled especially may change in future SIS versions.</li>
+     *       For example {@code multiply(RADIANS, 0.0174532925199...)} will return {@link #DEGREE}
+     *       even if the given numerical value is slightly different than {@linkplain Math#PI π}/180.
+     *       The tolerance factor and the set of units handled especially may change in future SIS versions.</li>
      *   <li>This method tries to returns unique instances for some common units.</li>
      * </ul>
      *
-     * @param  <Q>    The quantity measured by the unit.
-     * @param  unit   The unit to multiply.
-     * @param  factor The multiplication factor.
-     * @return The unit multiplied by the given factor.
+     * @param  <Q>     the quantity measured by the unit.
+     * @param  unit    the unit to multiply.
+     * @param  factor  the multiplication factor.
+     * @return the unit multiplied by the given factor.
+     *
+     * @deprecated Replaced by Apache SIS implementation of {@link Unit#multiply(double)}.
      */
+    @Deprecated
     @Workaround(library="JSR-275", version="0.9.3")
     @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
-    public static <Q extends Quantity> Unit<Q> multiply(Unit<Q> unit, final double factor) {
-        if (SI.RADIAN.equals(unit)) {
+    public static <Q extends Quantity<Q>> Unit<Q> multiply(Unit<Q> unit, final double factor) {
+        if (RADIAN.equals(unit)) {
             if (abs(factor - (PI / 180)) <= (EPS * PI/180)) {
-                return (Unit<Q>) NonSI.DEGREE_ANGLE;
+                return (Unit<Q>) DEGREE;
             }
             if (abs(factor - (PI / 200)) <= (EPS * PI/200)) {
-                return (Unit<Q>) NonSI.GRADE;
+                return (Unit<Q>) GRAD;
             }
-        } else if (SI.METRE.equals(unit)) {
+        } else if (METRE.equals(unit)) {
             if (abs(factor - 0.3048) <= (EPS * 0.3048)) {
-                return (Unit<Q>) NonSI.FOOT;
+                return (Unit<Q>) FOOT;
             }
             if (abs(factor - (1200.0/3937)) <= (EPS * (1200.0/3937))) {
-                return (Unit<Q>) NonSI.FOOT_SURVEY_US;
+                return (Unit<Q>) US_SURVEY_FOOT;
             }
         }
         if (abs(factor - 1) > EPS) {
-            final long fl = (long) factor;
-            if (fl == factor) {
-                /*
-                 * Invoke the Unit.times(long) overloaded method, not Unit.scale(double),
-                 * because as of JSR-275 0.9.3 the method with the long argument seems to
-                 * do a better work of detecting when the result is an existing unit.
-                 */
-                unit = unit.times(fl);
-            } else {
-                unit = unit.times(factor);
-            }
+            unit = unit.multiply(factor);
         }
-        return UnitsMap.canonicalize(unit);
+        return unit;
     }
 
     /**
      * Returns the factor by which to multiply the standard unit in order to get the given unit.
-     * The "standard" unit is usually the SI unit on which the given unit is based.
+     * The "standard" unit is usually the SI unit on which the given unit is based, as given by
+     * {@link Unit#getSystemUnit()}.
      *
-     * <p><b>Example:</b> If the given unit is <var>kilometre</var>, then this method returns 1000
-     * since a measurement in kilometres must be multiplied by 1000 in order to give the equivalent
-     * measurement in the "standard" units (here <var>metres</var>).</p>
-     *
-     * @param  <Q>  The quantity measured by the unit.
-     * @param  unit The unit for which we want the multiplication factor to standard unit.
-     * @return The factor by which to multiply a measurement in the given unit in order to
-     *         get an equivalent measurement in the standard unit.
-     */
-    @Workaround(library="JSR-275", version="0.9.3")
-    public static <Q extends Quantity> double toStandardUnit(final Unit<Q> unit) {
-        return derivative(unit.getConverterTo(unit.toSI()), 0);
+     * <div class="note"><b>Example:</b>
+     * if the given unit is {@link #KILOMETRE}, then this method returns 1000 since a measurement in kilometres
+     * must be multiplied by 1000 in order to give the equivalent measurement in the "standard" units
+     * (here {@link #METRE}).</div>
+     *
+     * If the given unit is {@code null} or if the conversion to the "standard" unit can not be expressed
+     * by a single multiplication factor, then this method returns {@link Double#NaN}.
+     *
+     * @param  <Q>   the quantity measured by the unit, or {@code null}.
+     * @param  unit  the unit for which we want the multiplication factor to standard unit, or {@code null}.
+     * @return the factor by which to multiply a measurement in the given unit in order to get an equivalent
+     *         measurement in the standard unit, or NaN if the conversion can not be expressed by a scale factor.
+     */
+    public static <Q extends Quantity<Q>> double toStandardUnit(final Unit<Q> unit) {
+        if (unit != null) {
+            final UnitConverter converter = unit.getConverterTo(unit.getSystemUnit());
+            if (converter.isLinear() && converter.convert(0) == 0) {
+                // Above check for converter(0) is a paranoiac check since
+                // JSR-363 said that a "linear" converter has no offset.
+                return converter.convert(1);
+            }
+        }
+        return Double.NaN;
     }
 
     /**
-     * Returns an estimation of the derivative of the given converter at the given value.
-     * This method is a workaround for a method which existed in previous JSR-275 API but
-     * have been removed in more recent releases. This method will be deprecated if the
-     * removed API is reinserted in future JSR-275 release.
+     * Returns the coefficients of the given converter expressed as a polynomial equation.
+     * This method returns the first of the following choices that apply:
      *
-     * <p>Current implementation computes the derivative as below:</p>
+     * <ul>
+     *   <li>If the given converter {@linkplain UnitConverter#isIdentity() is identity}, returns an empty array.</li>
+     *   <li>If the given converter shifts the values without scaling them (for example the conversion from Kelvin to
+     *       Celsius degrees), returns an array of length 1 containing only the offset.</li>
+     *   <li>If the given converter scales the values (optionally in addition to shifting them), returns an array of
+     *       length 2 containing the offset and scale factor, in that order.</li>
+     * </ul>
      *
-     * {@preformat java
-     *     return converter.convert(value + 1) - converter.convert(value);
-     * }
+     * This method returns {@code null} if it can not get the polynomial equation coefficients from the given converter.
      *
-     * The above is exact for {@linkplain javax.measure.converter.LinearConverter linear converters},
-     * which is the case of the vast majority of unit converters in use. It may not be exact for a
-     * few unusual converter like the one from sexagesimal degrees to decimal degrees for example.
+     * @param  converter  the converter from which to get the coefficients of the polynomial equation, or {@code null}.
+     * @return the polynomial equation coefficients (may be any length, including zero), or {@code null} if the given
+     *         converter is {@code null} or if this method can not get the coefficients.
      *
-     * @param  converter The converter for which we want the derivative at a given point.
-     * @param  value The point at which to compute the derivative.
-     * @return The derivative at the given point.
+     * @since 0.8
+     */
+    @SuppressWarnings("fallthrough")
+    public static Number[] coefficients(final UnitConverter converter) {
+        if (converter != null) {
+            if (converter instanceof AbstractConverter) {
+                return ((AbstractConverter) converter).coefficients();
+            }
+            if (converter.isIdentity()) {
+                return new Number[0];
+            }
+            if (converter.isLinear()) {
+                final double offset = converter.convert(0);  // Should be zero as per JSR-363 specification, but we are paranoiac.
+                final double scale  = converter.convert(1) - offset;
+                final Number[] c = new Number[(scale != 1) ? 2 : (offset != 0) ? 1 : 0];
+                switch (c.length) {
+                    case 2: c[1] = scale;       // Fall through
+                    case 1: c[0] = offset;
+                    case 0: break;
+                }
+                return c;
+            }
+        }
+        return null;
+    }
+
+    /**
+     * Returns the derivative of the given converter at the given value,
+     * or {@code NaN} if this method can not compute it.
+     *
+     * @param  converter  the converter for which we want the derivative at a given point, or {@code null}.
+     * @param  value      the point at which to compute the derivative.
+     * @return the derivative at the given point, or {@code NaN} if unknown.
+     *
+     * @see org.apache.sis.referencing.operation.transform.AbstractMathTransform#derivative(DirectPosition)
      */
-    @Workaround(library="JSR-275", version="0.9.3")
     public static double derivative(final UnitConverter converter, final double value) {
-        return converter.convert(value + 1) - converter.convert(value);
+        return AbstractConverter.derivative(converter, value);
     }
 
     /**
-     * Parses the given symbol. This method is similar to {@link Unit#valueOf(CharSequence)}, but
-     * hands especially a few symbols found in WKT parsing or in XML files. The list of symbols
-     * handled especially is implementation-dependent and may change in future SIS versions.
+     * Parses the given symbol. Invoking this method is equivalent to invoking
+     * {@link UnitFormat#parse(CharSequence)} on a shared locale-independent instance.
+     * This method is capable to handle some symbols found during WKT parsing or in XML files.
+     * The list of symbols supported by this method is implementation-dependent
+     * and may change in future SIS versions.
      *
      * <div class="section">Parsing authority codes</div>
      * As a special case, if the given {@code uom} arguments is of the form {@code "EPSG:####"}
@@ -342,158 +1161,25 @@ public final class Units extends Static
      * <div class="section">NetCDF unit symbols</div>
      * The attributes in NetCDF files often merge the axis direction with the angular unit,
      * as in {@code "degrees_east"} or {@code "degrees_north"}. This {@code valueOf} method
-     * ignores those suffixes and unconditionally returns {@link NonSI#DEGREE_ANGLE} for all
-     * axis directions. In particular, the units for {@code "degrees_west"} and {@code "degrees_east"}
-     * do <strong>not</strong> have opposite sign. It is caller responsibility to handle the
-     * direction of axes associated to NetCDF units.
-     *
-     * @param  uom The symbol to parse, or {@code null}.
-     * @return The parsed symbol, or {@code null} if {@code uom} was null.
-     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the given symbol can not be parsed.
-     */
-    public static Unit<?> valueOf(String uom) throws IllegalArgumentException {
-        if (uom == null) {
-            return null;
-        }
-        uom = trimWhitespaces(CharSequences.toASCII(uom)).toString();
-        final int length = uom.length();
-        /*
-         * Check for authority codes (currently only EPSG, but more could be added later).
-         * If the unit is not an authority code (which is the most common case), then we
-         * will check for hard-coded unit symbols.
-         *
-         * DefinitionURI.codeOf(…) returns 'uom' directly (provided that whitespaces were already trimmed)
-         * if no ':' character were found, in which case the string is assumed to be the code directly.
-         * This is the intended behavior for AuthorityFactory, but in the particular case of this method
-         * we want to try to parse as a xpointer before to give up.
-         */
-        if (isURI(uom)) {
-            String code = DefinitionURI.codeOf("uom", Constants.EPSG, uom);
-            if (code != null && code != uom) try {              // Really identity check, see above comment.
-                return valueOfEPSG(Integer.parseInt(code));
-            } catch (NumberFormatException e) {
-                throw new IllegalArgumentException(Errors.format(
-                        Errors.Keys.IllegalArgumentValue_2, "uom", uom), e);
-            }
-            code = XPaths.xpointer("uom", uom);
-            if (code != null) {
-                uom = code;
-            }
-        }
-        /*
-         * Check for degrees units. Note that "deg" could be both angular and Celsius degrees.
-         * We try to resolve this ambiguity in the code below by looking for the "Celsius" suffix.
-         * Other suffixes commonly found in NetCDF files are "west", "east", "north" or "south".
-         * Those suffixes are ignored.
-         */
-        if (uom.regionMatches(true, 0, "deg", 0, 3)) {
-            switch (length) {
-                case 3: return NonSI.DEGREE_ANGLE; // Exactly "deg"
-                case 4: {
-                    if (uom.charAt(3) == 'K') {
-                        return SI.KELVIN; // Exactly "degK".
-                    }
-                    break;
-                }
-            }
-            String prefix = uom;
-            boolean isTemperature = false;
-            final int s = Math.max(uom.lastIndexOf(' '), uom.lastIndexOf('_'));
-            if (s >= 1) {
-                final String suffix = (String) trimWhitespaces(uom, s+1, length);
-                if (ArraysExt.containsIgnoreCase(CARDINAL_DIRECTIONS, suffix) || (isTemperature = isCelsius(suffix))) {
-                    prefix = (String) trimWhitespaces(uom, 0, s); // Remove the suffix only if we recognized it.
-                }
-            }
-            if (equalsIgnorePlural(prefix, "degree")) {
-                return isTemperature ? SI.CELSIUS : NonSI.DEGREE_ANGLE;
-            }
-        } else {
-            /*
-             * Check for unit symbols that do not begin with "deg". If a symbol begins
-             * with "deg", then the check should be put in the above block instead.
-             */
-            if (uom.equals("°")                      || equalsIgnorePlural(uom, "decimal_degree")) return NonSI.DEGREE_ANGLE;
-            if (uom.equalsIgnoreCase("arcsec"))                                                    return NonSI.SECOND_ANGLE;
-            if (uom.equalsIgnoreCase("rad")          || equalsIgnorePlural(uom, "radian"))         return SI.RADIAN;
-            if (equalsIgnorePlural(uom, "meter")     || equalsIgnorePlural(uom, "metre"))          return SI.METRE;
-            if (equalsIgnorePlural(uom, "kilometer") || equalsIgnorePlural(uom, "kilometre"))      return SI.KILOMETRE;
-            if (equalsIgnorePlural(uom, "week"))        return NonSI.WEEK;
-            if (equalsIgnorePlural(uom, "day"))         return NonSI.DAY;
-            if (equalsIgnorePlural(uom, "hour"))        return NonSI.HOUR;
-            if (equalsIgnorePlural(uom, "minute"))      return NonSI.MINUTE;
-            if (equalsIgnorePlural(uom, "second"))      return SI   .SECOND;
-            if (equalsIgnorePlural(uom, "pixel"))       return NonSI.PIXEL;
-            if (equalsIgnorePlural(uom, "grade"))       return NonSI.GRADE;
-            if (isCelsius(uom))                         return SI.CELSIUS;
-            if (uom.isEmpty())                          return Unit.ONE;
-            if (uom.equalsIgnoreCase("US survey foot")) return NonSI.FOOT_SURVEY_US;
-            if (uom.equalsIgnoreCase("ppm"))            return PPM;
-            if (uom.equalsIgnoreCase("psu"))            return PSU;
-            if (uom.equalsIgnoreCase("sigma"))          return SIGMA;
-        }
-        final Unit<?> unit;
-        try {
-            unit = Unit.valueOf(uom);
-        } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
-            // Provides a better error message than the default JSR-275 0.9.4 implementation.
-            throw Exceptions.setMessage(e, Errors.format(Errors.Keys.IllegalArgumentValue_2, "uom", uom), true);
-        }
-        /*
-         * Special case: JSR-275 version 0.6.1 parses "1/s" and "s-1" as "Baud", which is not what
-         * we use in geoscience. Replace "Baud" by "Hertz" if the symbol was not explicitely "Bd".
-         */
-        if (unit.isCompatible(SI.HERTZ) && !uom.equals("Bd")) {
-            return SI.HERTZ;
-        }
-        return UnitsMap.canonicalize(unit);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns {@code true} if the given {@code uom} is equals to the given expected string,
-     * ignoring trailing {@code 's'} character (if any).
-     */
-    @SuppressWarnings("fallthrough")
-    private static boolean equalsIgnorePlural(final String uom, final String expected) {
-        final int length = expected.length();
-        switch (uom.length() - length) {
-            case 0:  break; // uom has exactly the expected length.
-            case 1:  if (Character.toLowerCase(uom.charAt(length)) == 's') break; // else fallthrough.
-            default: return false;
-        }
-        return uom.regionMatches(true, 0, expected, 0, length);
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns {@code true} if the given {@code uom} is equals to {@code "Celsius"} or
-     * {@code "Celcius"}. The later is a common misspelling.
-     */
-    private static boolean isCelsius(final String uom) {
-        return uom.equalsIgnoreCase("Celsius") || uom.equalsIgnoreCase("Celcius");
-    }
-
-    /**
-     * Returns {@code true} if the given unit seems to be an URI. Example:
-     * <ul>
-     *   <li>{@code "urn:ogc:def:uom:EPSG::9001"}</li>
-     *   <li>{@code "http://schemas.opengis.net/iso/19139/20070417/resources/uom/gmxUom.xml#xpointer(//*[@gml:id='m'])"}</li>
-     * </ul>
+     * ignores those suffixes and unconditionally returns {@link #DEGREE} for all axis directions.
+     * In particular, the units for {@code "degrees_west"} and {@code "degrees_east"}
+     * do <strong>not</strong> have opposite sign.
+     * It is caller responsibility to handle the direction of axes associated to NetCDF units.
+     *
+     * @param  uom  the symbol to parse, or {@code null}.
+     * @return the parsed symbol, or {@code null} if {@code uom} was null.
+     * @throws ParserException if the given symbol can not be parsed.
+     *
+     * @see UnitFormat#parse(CharSequence)
      */
-    private static boolean isURI(final String uom) {
-        for (int i=uom.length(); --i>=0;) {
-            final char c = uom.charAt(i);
-            if (c == ':' || c == '#') {
-                return true;
-            }
-        }
-        return false;
+    public static Unit<?> valueOf(String uom) throws ParserException {
+        return (uom != null) ? UnitFormat.INSTANCE.parse(uom) : null;
     }
 
     /**
-     * Returns a hard-coded unit from an EPSG code. The {@code code} argument given to this
-     * method shall be a code identifying a record in the {@code "Unit of Measure"} table of
-     * the EPSG database. If this method does not recognize the given code, then it returns
-     * {@code null}.
+     * Returns a hard-coded unit from an EPSG code. The {@code code} argument given to this method shall
+     * be a code identifying a record in the {@code "Unit of Measure"} table of the EPSG geodetic dataset.
+     * If this method does not recognize the given code, then it returns {@code null}.
      *
      * <p>The list of units recognized by this method is not exhaustive. This method recognizes
      * the base units declared in the {@code TARGET_UOM_CODE} column of the above-cited table,
@@ -521,7 +1207,7 @@ public final class Units extends Static
      *       <tr><td>9102</td><td>decimal degree</td></tr>
      *       <tr><td>9103</td><td>minute</td></tr>
      *       <tr><td>9104</td><td>second</td></tr>
-     *       <tr><td>9105</td><td>grade</td></tr>
+     *       <tr><td>9105</td><td>grad</td></tr>
      *       <tr><td>9107</td><td>degree-minute-second</td></tr>
      *       <tr><td>9108</td><td>degree-minute-second</td></tr>
      *       <tr><td>9109</td><td>microradian</td></tr>
@@ -531,11 +1217,14 @@ public final class Units extends Static
      *     </table></td>
      *     <td class="sep"><table class="compact" summary="Linear units">
      *       <tr><td style="width: 40px"><b>Code</b></td><td><b>Unit</b></td></tr>
+     *       <tr><td>1025</td><td>millimetre</td></tr>
+     *       <tr><td>1033</td><td>centimetre</td></tr>
      *       <tr><td>9001</td><td>metre</td></tr>
      *       <tr><td>9002</td><td>foot</td></tr>
      *       <tr><td>9003</td><td>US survey foot</td></tr>
      *       <tr><td>9030</td><td>nautical mile</td></tr>
      *       <tr><td>9036</td><td>kilometre</td></tr>
+     *       <tr><td>9093</td><td>statute mile</td></tr>
      *     </table></td>
      *     <td class="sep"><table class="compact" summary="Time units">
      *       <tr><td style="width: 40px"><b>Code</b></td><td><b>Unit</b></td></tr>
@@ -544,9 +1233,9 @@ public final class Units extends Static
      *     </table></td>
      *     <td class="sep"><table class="compact" summary="Scale units">
      *       <tr><td style="width: 40px"><b>Code</b></td><td><b>Unit</b></td></tr>
-     *       <tr><td>9201</td><td>one</td></tr>
-     *       <tr><td>9202</td><td>part per million</td></tr>
-     *       <tr><td>9203</td><td>one</td></tr>
+     *       <tr><td>9201</td><td>unity</td></tr>
+     *       <tr><td>9202</td><td>parts per million</td></tr>
+     *       <tr><td>9203</td><td>unity</td></tr>
      *     </table></td>
      *   </tr>
      * </table>
@@ -556,36 +1245,32 @@ public final class Units extends Static
      * and code 9122 (<cite>degree (supplier to define representation)</cite>) for coordinate system axes.
      * But Apache SIS considers those two codes as synonymous.</div>
      *
-     * @param  code The EPSG code for a unit of measurement.
-     * @return The unit, or {@code null} if the code is unrecognized.
+     * @param  code  the EPSG code for a unit of measurement.
+     * @return the unit, or {@code null} if the code is unrecognized.
      *
      * @see org.apache.sis.referencing.factory.GeodeticAuthorityFactory#createUnit(String)
      */
     public static Unit<?> valueOfEPSG(final int code) {
+        /*
+         * The switch for the SexagesimalConverter cases are needed since we did not put those units
+         * in the UnitRegistry map for reducing a little bit class loading in the common cases where
+         * those units are not needed. Other cases are redundant with the UnitRegistry check, but we
+         * add them opportunistically as a shortcut since those units are frequently used.
+         */
         switch (code) {
             case Constants.EPSG_PARAM_DEGREES:  // Fall through
-            case Constants.EPSG_AXIS_DEGREES:   return NonSI.DEGREE_ANGLE;
-            case Constants.EPSG_METRE:          return SI.METRE;
+            case Constants.EPSG_AXIS_DEGREES:   return DEGREE;
+            case Constants.EPSG_METRE:          return METRE;
 
-            case 1029: return       YEAR;
-            case 1040: return SI   .SECOND;
-            case 9002: return NonSI.FOOT;
-            case 9003: return NonSI.FOOT_SURVEY_US;
-            case 9030: return NonSI.NAUTICAL_MILE;
-            case 9036: return SI   .KILOMETRE;
-            case 9101: return SI   .RADIAN;
-            case 9103: return NonSI.MINUTE_ANGLE;
-            case 9104: return NonSI.SECOND_ANGLE;
-            case 9105: return NonSI.GRADE;
-            case 9109: return SI.MetricPrefix.MICRO(SI.RADIAN);
             case 9107: // Fall through
             case 9108: return SexagesimalConverter.DMS_SCALED;
             case 9110: return SexagesimalConverter.DMS;
             case 9111: return SexagesimalConverter.DM;
             case 9203: // Fall through
-            case 9201: return Unit .ONE;
-            case 9202: return Units.PPM;
-            default:   return null;
+            case 9201: return UNITY;
+            default: {
+                return (code > 0 && code <= Short.MAX_VALUE) ? (Unit<?>) UnitRegistry.get((short) code) : null;
+            }
         }
     }
 
@@ -602,17 +1287,28 @@ public final class Units extends Static
      * When such choice exists, the code to return is determined by the {@code inAxis} argument,
      * which specifies whether the code will be used for axis definition or in other context.
      *
-     * @param  unit The unit for which to get the EPSG code.
+     * @param  unit   the unit for which to get the EPSG code.
      * @param  inAxis {@code true} for a unit used in Coordinate System Axis definition.
-     * @return The EPSG code of the given units, or {@code null} if unknown.
+     * @return the EPSG code of the given units, or {@code null} if unknown.
      *
      * @since 0.4
      */
-    public static Integer getEpsgCode(final Unit<?> unit, final boolean inAxis) {
-        Integer code = UnitsMap.EPSG_CODES.get(unit);
-        if (inAxis && code != null && code == Constants.EPSG_PARAM_DEGREES) {
-            code = UnitsMap.EPSG_AXIS_DEGREES;
+    public static Integer getEpsgCode(Unit<?> unit, final boolean inAxis) {
+        if (unit != null) {
+            if (!(unit instanceof AbstractUnit<?>)) {
+                unit = get(unit.getSymbol());
+                if (!(unit instanceof AbstractUnit<?>)) {
+                    return null;
+                }
+            }
+            short code = ((AbstractUnit<?>) unit).epsg;
+            if (code != 0) {
+                if (inAxis && code == Constants.EPSG_PARAM_DEGREES) {
+                    code = Constants.EPSG_AXIS_DEGREES;
+                }
+                return Integer.valueOf(code);
+            }
         }
-        return code;
+        return null;
     }
 }

Modified: sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/measure/package-info.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/measure/package-info.java?rev=1767577&r1=1767576&r2=1767577&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/measure/package-info.java [UTF-8] (original)
+++ sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/measure/package-info.java [UTF-8] Tue Nov  1 21:03:06 2016
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@
  *
  * @author  Martin Desruisseaux (MPO, IRD, Geomatys)
  * @since   0.3
- * @version 0.3
+ * @version 0.8
  * @module
  */
 package org.apache.sis.measure;

Modified: sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/util/CharSequences.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/util/CharSequences.java?rev=1767577&r1=1767576&r2=1767577&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/util/CharSequences.java [UTF-8] (original)
+++ sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/util/CharSequences.java [UTF-8] Tue Nov  1 21:03:06 2016
@@ -921,10 +921,10 @@ search:     for (; fromIndex <= toIndex;
 
     /**
      * Replaces some Unicode characters by ASCII characters on a "best effort basis".
-     * For example the {@code 'é'} character is replaced by {@code 'e'} (without accent).
-     *
-     * <p>The current implementation replaces the characters in the range {@code 00C0}
-     * to {@code 00FF} (inclusive) and some space and punctuation characters.</p>
+     * For example the “ é ” character is replaced by  “ e ” (without accent),
+     * the  “ ″ ” symbol for minutes of angle is replaced by straight double quotes “ " ”,
+     * and combined characters like ㎏, ㎎, ㎝, ㎞, ㎢, ㎦, ㎖, ㎧, ㎩, ㎐, <i>etc.</i> are replaced
+     * by the corresponding sequences of characters.
      *
      * <div class="note"><b>Note:</b>
      * the replacement of Greek letters is a more complex task than what this method can do,
@@ -938,6 +938,7 @@ search:     for (; fromIndex <= toIndex;
      *
      * @see StringBuilders#toASCII(StringBuilder)
      * @see org.apache.sis.io.wkt.Transliterator#filter(String)
+     * @see java.text.Normalizer
      */
     public static CharSequence toASCII(final CharSequence text) {
         return StringBuilders.toASCII(text, null);
@@ -1620,7 +1621,7 @@ cmp:    while (ia < lga) {
      * @param  s1          the first characters sequence to compare, or {@code null}.
      * @param  s2          the second characters sequence to compare, or {@code null}.
      * @param  filter      the subset of characters to compare, or {@code null} for comparing all characters.
-     * @param  ignoreCase  {@code true} for comparing cases, or {@code false} for requiring exact match.
+     * @param  ignoreCase  {@code true} for ignoring cases, or {@code false} for requiring exact match.
      * @return {@code true} if both arguments are {@code null} or if the two given texts are equal,
      *         optionally ignoring case and filtered-out characters.
      */

Modified: sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/util/Characters.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/util/Characters.java?rev=1767577&r1=1767576&r2=1767577&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/util/Characters.java [UTF-8] (original)
+++ sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/util/Characters.java [UTF-8] Tue Nov  1 21:03:06 2016
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@ public final class Characters extends St
      * They are ASCII codes 32 to 125 inclusive except ! (33), # (35), $ (36), @ (64) and ` (96),
      * plus the addition of ° (176) despite being formally outside the ASCII character set.
      *
-     * @param  c The code point to test.
+     * @param  c  the code point to test.
      * @return {@code true} if the given code point is a valid WKT character.
      *
      * @see org.apache.sis.io.wkt.Transliterator
@@ -110,7 +110,7 @@ public final class Characters extends St
      * line separator}, a {@linkplain Character#PARAGRAPH_SEPARATOR paragraph separator} or one
      * of the {@code '\r'} or {@code '\n'} control characters.
      *
-     * @param  c The code point to test.
+     * @param  c  the code point to test.
      * @return {@code true} if the given code point is a line or paragraph separator.
      *
      * @see #LINE_SEPARATOR
@@ -130,7 +130,7 @@ public final class Characters extends St
      * This method returns {@code true} if {@code c} is between {@code '0'} and {@code '9'} inclusive,
      * or between {@code 'A'} and {@code 'F'} inclusive, or between {@code 'a'} and {@code 'f'} inclusive.
      *
-     * @param  c The character to test.
+     * @param  c  the character to test.
      * @return {@code true} if the given character is an hexadecimal digit.
      *
      * @since 0.5
@@ -152,16 +152,16 @@ public final class Characters extends St
      *   ⁰ ¹ ² ³ ⁴ ⁵ ⁶ ⁷ ⁸ ⁹ ⁺ ⁻ ⁼ ⁽ ⁾ ⁿ
      * }
      *
-     * @param  c The character to test.
+     * @param  c  the character to test.
      * @return {@code true} if the given character is a superscript.
      */
     public static boolean isSuperScript(final int c) {
         switch (c) {
             case '¹':      // Legacy values in "Latin-1 supplement" space: 00B9, 00B2 and 00B3.
-            case '²':      // Those values are outside the normal [2070 … 207F] range.
+            case '²':      // Those values are outside the usual [2070 … 207F] range.
             case '³':      return true;
-            case '\u2071': // Would be the '¹', '²' and '³' values if they were declared in the
-            case '\u2072': // normal range. Since they are not, those values are unassigned.
+            case '\u2071': // Would be the '¹', '²' and '³' values if they were declared in the usual range.
+            case '\u2072': // Since they are not, those values are unassigned.
             case '\u2073': return false;
             default:       return (c >= '⁰' && c <= 'ⁿ');
         }
@@ -175,7 +175,7 @@ public final class Characters extends St
      *   ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ ₅ ₆ ₇ ₈ ₉ ₊ ₋ ₌ ₍ ₎
      * }
      *
-     * @param  c The character to test.
+     * @param  c  the character to test.
      * @return {@code true} if the given character is a subscript.
      */
     public static boolean isSubScript(final int c) {
@@ -190,9 +190,8 @@ public final class Characters extends St
      *     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 + - = ( ) n
      * }
      *
-     * @param  c The character to convert.
-     * @return The given character as a superscript, or {@code c}
-     *         if the given character can not be converted.
+     * @param  c  the character to convert.
+     * @return the given character as a superscript, or {@code c} if the given character can not be converted.
      */
     public static char toSuperScript(char c) {
         switch (c) {
@@ -223,9 +222,8 @@ public final class Characters extends St
      *     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 + - = ( )
      * }
      *
-     * @param  c The character to convert.
-     * @return The given character as a subscript, or {@code c}
-     *         if the given character can not be converted.
+     * @param  c  the character to convert.
+     * @return the given character as a subscript, or {@code c} if the given character can not be converted.
      */
     public static char toSubScript(char c) {
         switch (c) {
@@ -247,8 +245,8 @@ public final class Characters extends St
     /**
      * Converts the given character argument to normal script.
      *
-     * @param  c The character to convert.
-     * @return The given character as a normal script, or {@code c} if the
+     * @param  c  the character to convert.
+     * @return the given character as a normal script, or {@code c} if the
      *         given character was not a superscript or a subscript.
      */
     public static char toNormalScript(char c) {
@@ -369,8 +367,8 @@ public final class Characters extends St
         /**
          * Creates a new subset of the given name.
          *
-         * @param name  The subset name.
-         * @param types A bitmask of character types.
+         * @param  name   the subset name.
+         * @param  types  a bitmask of character types.
          */
         Filter(final String name, final long types) {
             super(name);
@@ -380,7 +378,7 @@ public final class Characters extends St
         /**
          * Returns {@code true} if this subset contains the given Unicode character.
          *
-         * @param  codePoint The Unicode character, as a code point value.
+         * @param  codePoint  the Unicode character, as a code point value.
          * @return {@code true} if this subset contains the given character.
          */
         public boolean contains(final int codePoint) {
@@ -395,7 +393,7 @@ public final class Characters extends St
          * {@link Character#DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER DECIMAL_DIGIT_NUMBER} or
          * {@link Character#SPACE_SEPARATOR      SPACE_SEPARATOR}.
          *
-         * @param  type One of the {@link Character} constants.
+         * @param  type  one of the {@link Character} constants.
          * @return {@code true} if this subset contains the characters of the given type.
          *
          * @see Character#getType(int)
@@ -407,8 +405,8 @@ public final class Characters extends St
         /**
          * Returns a subset representing the union of all Unicode characters of the given types.
          *
-         * @param  types The character types, as {@link Character} constants.
-         * @return The subset of Unicode characters of the given type.
+         * @param  types  the character types, as {@link Character} constants.
+         * @return the subset of Unicode characters of the given type.
          *
          * @see Character#LOWERCASE_LETTER
          * @see Character#UPPERCASE_LETTER

Modified: sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/util/Static.java
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/util/Static.java?rev=1767577&r1=1767576&r2=1767577&view=diff
==============================================================================
--- sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/util/Static.java [UTF-8] (original)
+++ sis/trunk/core/sis-utility/src/main/java/org/apache/sis/util/Static.java [UTF-8] Tue Nov  1 21:03:06 2016
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@ package org.apache.sis.util;
  * <tr><td>{@link org.apache.sis.referencing.operation.matrix.Matrices}</td>
  *     <td>Create and compare {@link org.opengis.referencing.operation.Matrix} objects</td></tr>
  * <tr><td>{@link org.apache.sis.measure.Units}</td>
- *     <td>Get a {@linkplain javax.measure.unit.Unit unit} from a symbol or EPSG code,
+ *     <td>Get a {@linkplain javax.measure.Unit unit} from a symbol or EPSG code,
  *         and test if a unit is angular, linear or temporal.</td></tr>
  *
  * <tr><th colspan="2" class="hsep">OGC/ISO objects (metadata, referencing, geometries)</th></tr>



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