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From jkr...@apache.org
Subject svn commit: r1153025 [1/2] - in /incubator/kafka/site: ./ images/ includes/
Date Tue, 02 Aug 2011 04:31:45 GMT
Author: jkreps
Date: Tue Aug  2 04:31:40 2011
New Revision: 1153025

URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc?rev=1153025&view=rev
Log:
First pass at converting the site.


Added:
    incubator/kafka/site/configuration.html
    incubator/kafka/site/consumer.html
    incubator/kafka/site/contact.html
    incubator/kafka/site/design.html
    incubator/kafka/site/downloads.html
    incubator/kafka/site/faq.html
    incubator/kafka/site/images/
    incubator/kafka/site/images/dataSize.jpg   (with props)
    incubator/kafka/site/images/kafka_log.png   (with props)
    incubator/kafka/site/images/onlyBatchSize.jpg   (with props)
    incubator/kafka/site/images/onlyConsumer.jpg   (with props)
    incubator/kafka/site/images/onlyProducer.jpg   (with props)
    incubator/kafka/site/images/onlyTopic.jpg   (with props)
    incubator/kafka/site/images/tracking_high_level.png   (with props)
    incubator/kafka/site/includes/
    incubator/kafka/site/includes/footer.html
    incubator/kafka/site/includes/header.html
    incubator/kafka/site/index.html
    incubator/kafka/site/performance.html
    incubator/kafka/site/projects.html
    incubator/kafka/site/quickstart.html
    incubator/kafka/site/styles.css

Added: incubator/kafka/site/configuration.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/incubator/kafka/site/configuration.html?rev=1153025&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- incubator/kafka/site/configuration.html (added)
+++ incubator/kafka/site/configuration.html Tue Aug  2 04:31:40 2011
@@ -0,0 +1,276 @@
+<!--#include virtual="includes/header.html" -->
+
+<h2> Configuration </h2>
+
+<h3> Important configuration properties for Kafka broker: </h3>
+
+<p>More details about server configuration can be found in the scala class <code>kafka.server.KafkaConfig</code>.</p> 
+
+<table class="data-table">
+<tr>
+        <th>name</th>
+        <th>default</th>
+        <th>description</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>brokerid</code></td>
+    <td>none</td>
+    <td>Each broker is uniquely identified by an id. This id serves as the brokers "name", and allows the broker to be moved to a different host/port without confusing consumers.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+     <td><code>log.flush.interval</code></td>
+     <td>500</td>
+     <td>Controls the number of messages accumulated in each topic (partition) before the data is flushed to disk and made available to consumers.</td>  
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>log.default.flush.scheduler.interval.ms</code></td>
+    <td>3000</td>
+    <td>Controls the interval at which logs are checked to see if they need to be flushed to disk.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>log.default.flush.interval.ms</code> </td>
+    <td>log.default.flush.scheduler.interval.ms</td>
+    <td>Controls the maximum time that a message in any topic is kept in memory before flushed to disk. The value only makes sense if it's a multiple of <code>log.default.flush.scheduler.interval
+.ms</code></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>topic.flush.intervals.ms</code></td>
+    <td>none</td>
+    <td>Per-topic overrides for <code>log.default.flush.interval.ms</code>. Controls the maximum time that a message in selected topics is kept in memory before flushed to disk. The per-topic value only makes sense if it's a multiple of <code>log.default.flush.scheduler.interval.ms</code>. E.g., topic1:1000,topic2:2000</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>log.retention.hours</code></td>
+    <td>168</td>
+    <td>Controls how long a log file is retained.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>topic.log.retention.hours</code></td>
+    <td>none</td>
+    <td>Topic-specific retention time that overrides <code>log.retention.hours</code>, e.g., topic1:10,topic2:20</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>log.cleanup.interval.mins</code></td>
+    <td>10</td>
+    <td>Controls how often the log cleaner checks logs eligible for deletion. A log file is eligible for deletion if it hasn't been modified for <code>log.retention.hours</code> hours.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>log.dir</code></td>
+    <td>none</td>
+    <td>Specifies the root directory in which all log data is kept.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>log.file.size</code></td>
+    <td>1*1024*1024*1024</td>
+    <td>Controls the maximum size of a single log file.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>num.threads</code></td>
+    <td>Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors</td>
+    <td>Controls the number of worker threads in the broker to serve requests.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>num.partitions</code> </td>
+    <td>1</td>
+    <td>Specifies the default number of partitions per topic.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>topic.partition.count.map</code></td>
+    <td>none</td>
+    <td>Override parameter to control the number of partitions for selected topics. E.g., topic1:10,topic2:20</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>zk.connect</code> </td>
+    <td>localhost:2182/kafka</td>
+    <td>Specifies the zookeeper connection string in the form hostname:port/chroot. Here the chroot is a base directory which is prepended to all path operations (this effectively namespaces all kafka znodes to allow sharing with other applications on the same zookeeper cluster)</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>zk.connectiontimeout.ms</code> </td>
+    <td>6000</td>
+    <td>Specifies the max time that the client waits to establish a connection to zookeeper.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>zk.sessiontimeout.ms</code> </td>
+    <td>6000</td>
+    <td>The zookeeper session timeout.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>zk.synctime.ms</code></td>
+    <td>2000</td>
+    <td>Max time for how far a ZK follower can be behind a ZK leader</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+
+
+<h3> Important configuration properties for the high-level consumer: </h3>
+
+<p>More details about consumer configuration can be found in the scala class <code>kafka.consumer.ConsumerConfig</code>.</p> 
+
+<table class="data-table">
+<tr>
+        <th>property</th>
+        <th>default</th>
+        <th>description</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>groupid</code></td>
+    <td>groupid</td>
+    <td>is a string that uniquely identifies a set of consumers within the same consumer group. </td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>socket.timeout.ms</code></td>
+    <td>30000</td>
+    <td>controls the socket timeout for network requests </td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>socket.buffersize</code></td>
+    <td>64*1024</td>
+    <td>controls the socket receive buffer for network requests</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>fetch.size</code></td>
+    <td>300 * 1024</td>
+    <td>controls the number of bytes of messages to attempt to fetch in one request to the Kafka server</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>backoff.increment.ms</code></td>
+    <td>1000</td>
+    <td>This parameter avoids repeatedly polling a broker node which has no new data. We will backoff every time we get an empty set 
+from the broker for this time period</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>queuedchunks.max</code></td>
+    <td>100</td>
+    <td>the high level consumer buffers the messages fetched from the server internally in blocking queues. This parameter controls
+the size of those queues</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>autocommit.enable</code></td>
+    <td>true</td>
+    <td>if set to true, the consumer periodically commits to zookeeper the latest consumed offset of each partition. </td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>autocommit.interval.ms</code> </td>
+    <td>10000</td>
+    <td>is the frequency that the consumed offsets are committed to zookeeper. </td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>autooffset.reset</code></td>
+    <td>smallest</td>
+    <td><ul>
+ <li> <code>smallest</code>: automatically reset the offset to the smallest offset available on the broker.</li>
+ <li> <code>largest</code> : automatically reset the offset to the largest offset available on the broker.</li>
+ <li> <code>anything else</code>: throw an exception to the consumer.</li>
+</ul>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>consumer.timeout.ms</code></td>
+    <td>-1</td>
+    <td>By default, this value is -1 and a consumer blocks indefinitely if no new message is available for consumption. By setting the value to a positive integer, a timeout exception is thrown to the consumer if no message is available for consumption after the specified timeout value.</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+
+
+<h3> Important configuration properties for the producer: </h3>
+
+<p>More details about producer configuration can be found in the scala class <code>kafka.producer.ProducerConfig</code>.</p> 
+
+<table class="data-table">
+<tr>
+        <th>property</th>
+        <th>default</th>
+        <th>description</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>serializer.class</code></td>
+    <td>kafka.serializer.DefaultEncoder. This is a no-op encoder. The serialization of data to Message should be handled outside the Producer</td>
+    <td>class that implements the <code>kafka.serializer.Encoder&lt;T&gt;</code> interface, used to encode data of type T into a Kafka message </td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>partitioner.class</code></td>
+    <td><code>kafka.producer.DefaultPartitioner&lt;T&gt;</code> - uses the partitioning strategy <code>hash(key)%num_partitions</code>. If key is null, then it picks a random partition. </td>
+    <td>class that implements the <code>kafka.producer.Partitioner&lt;K&gt;</code>, used to supply a custom partitioning strategy on the message key (of type K) that is specified through the <code>ProducerData&lt;K, T&gt;</code> object in the <code>kafka.producer.Producer&lt;T&gt;</code> send API</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>producer.type</code></td>
+    <td>sync</td>
+    <td>this parameter specifies whether the messages are sent asynchronously or not. Valid values are - <ul><li><code>async</code> for asynchronous batching send through <code>kafka.producer.AyncProducer</code></li><li><code>sync</code> for synchronous send through <code>kafka.producer.SyncProducer</code></li></ul></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>broker.list</code></td>
+    <td>null. Either this parameter or zk.connect needs to be specified by the user.</td>
+    <td>For bypassing zookeeper based auto partition discovery, use this config to pass in static broker and per-broker partition information. Format-<code>brokerid1:host1:port1, brokerid2:host2:port2.</code>
+	If you use this option, the <code>partitioner.class</code> will be ignored and each producer request will be routed to a random broker partition.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>zk.connect</code></td>
+    <td>null. Either this parameter or broker.partition.info needs to be specified by the user</td>
+    <td>For using the zookeeper based automatic broker discovery, use this config to pass in the zookeeper connection url to the zookeeper cluster where the Kafka brokers are registered.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr><td></td><td><b>The following config parameters are related to</b> <code><b>kafka.producer.async.AsyncSyncProducer</b></code></td><tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>queue.time</code></td>
+    <td>5000</td>
+    <td>maximum time, in milliseconds, for buffering data on the producer queue. After it elapses, the buffered data in the producer queue is dispatched to the <code>event.handler</code>.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>queue.size</code></td>
+    <td>10000</td>
+    <td>the maximum size of the blocking queue for buffering on the <code> kafka.producer.AsyncProducer</code></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>batch.size</code> </td>
+    <td>200</td>
+    <td>the number of messages batched at the producer, before being dispatched to the <code>event.handler</code></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>event.handler</code></td>
+    <td><code>kafka.producer.async.EventHandler&lt;T&gt;</code></td>
+    <td>the class that implements <code>kafka.producer.async.IEventHandler&lt;T&gt;</code> used to dispatch a batch of produce requests, using an instance of <code>kafka.producer.SyncProducer</code>. 
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>event.handler.props</code></td>
+    <td>null</td>
+    <td>the <code>java.util.Properties()</code> object used to initialize the custom <code>event.handler</code> through its <code>init()</code> API</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>callback.handler</code></td>
+    <td><code>null</code></td>
+    <td>the class that implements <code>kafka.producer.async.CallbackHandler&lt;T&gt;</code> used to inject callbacks at various stages of the <code>kafka.producer.AsyncProducer</code> pipeline.
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>callback.handler.props</code></td>
+    <td>null</td>
+    <td>the <code>java.util.Properties()</code> object used to initialize the custom <code>callback.handler</code> through its <code>init()</code> API</td>
+</tr>
+<tr><td></td><td><b>The following config parameters are related to</b> <code><b>kafka.producer.SyncProducer</b></code></td><tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>buffer.size</code></td>
+    <td>102400</td>
+    <td>the socket buffer size, in bytes</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>connect.timeout.ms</code></td>
+    <td>5000</td>
+    <td>the maximum time spent by <code>kafka.producer.SyncProducer</code> trying to connect to the kafka broker. Once it elapses, the producer throws an ERROR and stops.</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>socket.timeout.ms</code></td>
+    <td>30000</td>
+    <td>The socket timeout in milliseconds</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>reconnect.interval</code> </td>
+    <td>30000</td>
+    <td>the number of produce requests after which <code>kafka.producer.SyncProducer</code> tears down the socket connection to the broker and establishes it again</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+    <td><code>max.message.size</code> </td>
+    <td>1000000</td>
+    <td>the maximum number of bytes that the kafka.producer.SyncProducer can send as a single message payload</td>
+</tr></table>
+
+
+<!--#include virtual="includes/footer.html" -->

Added: incubator/kafka/site/consumer.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/incubator/kafka/site/consumer.html?rev=1153025&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- incubator/kafka/site/consumer.html (added)
+++ incubator/kafka/site/consumer.html Tue Aug  2 04:31:40 2011
@@ -0,0 +1,76 @@
+<!--#include virtual="includes/header.html" -->
+
+<h2>Consumer Design</h3>
+	
+<h3>API<h3>
+	
+The Kafka consumer API abstracts away the individual requests to the Kafka servers and provides a higher level API which provides iterators over the infinite stream of messages. Here is an example of using the consumer to consume data:
+
+<code>
+val consumer = new Consumer(new ConsumerConfig(...))
+
+// begin consumption of two topics
+val topic1: MessageStream = consumer.consume("my_topic_1")
+val topic2: MessageStream = consumer.consume("my_topic_2")
+
+// process messages from topic1
+for(message <- topic1) {
+	// process the message
+}
+
+// record the processing of all messages
+topic1.commit()
+
+// close topic1
+topic1.close()
+
+// close all topics
+consumer.close()
+</code>
+
+<h3>Internals</h3>
+
+The consumer is divided into two components:
+1. The fetcher - fetches data on the active partitions
+2. The cluster connector - manages connection to zookeeper for cluster management and consumer balancing
+
+<h3>ConsumerFetcher</h3>
+
+<p>
+The consumer fetcher is a background thread that holds the connections to the kafka servers and fetches the data for consumption. It is responsible for throttling its requests to the servers.
+</p>
+<p>
+Fetched data is put into a queue of unconsumed data for consumption by one of the ConsumerIterators.
+</p>
+<p>
+The ConsumerFetcher is responsible for registration with zookeeper and for balancing its consumption with other consumers.
+</p>
+<p>
+The ConsumerFetcher maintains a PartitionRepository which stores an entry for each topic/partition entry as well as the current consumed offset as a PartitionOffset object. The fetcher thread adds FetchedDataChunk objects which contain the PartitionOffset as well as the fetched MessageSet.
+</p>
+<p>
+The ConsumerFetcher exposes a commit(topic: String) call, which will write all PartitionOffset data back to zookeeper.	
+</p>
+
+<h3>KafkaMessageStream</h3>
+	
+This represents a holder for the iterator for a particular topic. It also exposes the commit() call for that topic. This
+commit call uses the same lock the iterator uses for next() and hasNext() to ensure only one of these executes at a given time.
+
+<h3>ConsumerIterator</h3>
+
+Each consumer has a single iterator for its messages which is feed by the fetcher. Internally the iterator
+has a blocking queue of FetchedDataChunks. It reads off of its current chunk until it is exhausted, then it gets a new chunk. Each call to next() updates the PartitionOffset value.
+
+<h3>Example Code</h3>
+<pre>
+  val fetcher = new ConsumerFetcher(new ConsumerConfig(...))
+  fetcher.connect()
+  val stream: KafkaMessageStream = fetcher.consume("my_topic")
+  for(m <- stream) {
+    process(m)	
+  }
+  stream.commit()
+</pre>
+	
+<!--#include virtual="includes/footer.html" -->
\ No newline at end of file

Added: incubator/kafka/site/contact.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/incubator/kafka/site/contact.html?rev=1153025&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- incubator/kafka/site/contact.html (added)
+++ incubator/kafka/site/contact.html Tue Aug  2 04:31:40 2011
@@ -0,0 +1,26 @@
+<!--#include virtual="includes/header.html" -->
+
+<h2>Mailing Lists</h3>
+	
+<p>
+We have a few mailing lists hosted by Apache:
+</p>
+<ul>
+	<li>
+	  <a href="mailto: kafka-users@incubator.apache.org">kafka-users@incubator.apache.org</a>: A list for general user questions about Kafka. To subscribe, send an email to <a href="mailto: kafka-users-subscribe@incubator.apache.org">kafka-users-subscribe@incubator.apache.org</a>. Archives available <a href="http://mail-archives.apache.org/mod_mbox/incubator-kafka-users">here</a>.
+	</li>
+	<li>
+	  <a href="mailto: kafka-dev@incubator.apache.org">kafka-dev@incubator.apache.org</a>: A list for discussion on Kafka development. To subscribe, send an email to <a href="mailto: kafka-dev-subscribe@incubator.apache.org">kafka-dev-subscribe@incubator.apache.org</a>. Archives available <a href="http://mail-archives.apache.org/mod_mbox/incubator-kafka-dev">here</a>.
+	</li>
+	<li>
+	  <a href="mailto: kafka-commits@incubator.apache.org">kafka-commits@incubator.apache.org</a>: A list to track Kafka commits. To subscribe, send an email to <a href="mailto: kafka-commits-subscribe@incubator.apache.org">kafka-commits-subscribe@incubator.apache.org</a>. Archives available <a href="http://mail-archives.apache.org/mod_mbox/incubator-kafka-commits">here</a>.
+	</li>
+	<li>Prior to the move to apache we had a Google group we used for discussion. Archives can be found <a href="http://groups.google.com/group/kafka-dev">here</a>.
+</ul>
+	
+<h2>IRC</h2>
+<p>
+	We have an IRC channel where there is often a few people hanging around if you want an interactive discussion. You can find us on chat.freenode.net	in #kafka room.
+</p>
+
+<!--#include virtual="includes/footer.html" -->

Added: incubator/kafka/site/design.html
URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/incubator/kafka/site/design.html?rev=1153025&view=auto
==============================================================================
--- incubator/kafka/site/design.html (added)
+++ incubator/kafka/site/design.html Tue Aug  2 04:31:40 2011
@@ -0,0 +1,571 @@
+<!--#include virtual="includes/header.html" -->
+
+<h2>Why we built this</h2>
+
+<p>
+Kafka is a messaging system that was built at LinkedIn to serve as the foundation for our activity stream processing.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Activity stream data is a normal part of any website for reporting on usage of the site. Activity data is things like page views, information about what content was shown, searches, etc. This kind of thing is usually handled by logging the activity out to some kind of file and then periodically aggregating these files for analysis.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+In recent years, however, activity data has become a critical part of the production features of websites, and a slightly more sophisticated set of infrastructure is needed.
+
+<h2>Use cases for activity stream data</h2>
+<ul>
+	<li>"News feed" features that broadcast the activity of your friends.</li>
+	<li>Relevance and ranking uses count ratings, votes, or click-through to determine which of a given set of items is most relevant.</li>
+	<li>Security: Sites need to block abusive crawlers, rate-limit apis, detect spamming attempts, and maintain other detection and prevention systems that key off site activity.</li>
+	<li>Operational monitoring: Most sites needs some kind of real-time, heads-up monitoring that can track performance and trigger alerts if something goes wrong.</li>
+	<li>Reporting and Batch processing: It is common to load data into a data warehouse or Hadoop system for offline analysis and reporting on business activity</li>
+</ul>
+</p>
+<h2>Characteristics of activity stream data</h2>	
+<p>
+This high-throughput stream of immutable activity data represents a real computational challenge as the volume may easily be 10x or 100x larger than the next largest data source on a site.
+</p>
+<p>Traditional log file aggregation is a respectable and scalable approach to supporting offline use cases like reporting or batch processing; but is too high latency for real-time processing and tends to have rather high operational complexity. On the other hand, existing messaging and queuing systems are okay for real-time and near-real-time use-cases, but handle large unconsumed queues very poorly often treating persistence as an after thought. This creates problems for feeding the data to offline systems like Hadoop that may only consume some sources once per hour or per day. Kafka is intended to be a single queuing platform that can support both offline and online use cases.
+</p>
+<p>
+Kafka supports fairly general messaging semantics. Nothing ties it to activity processing, though that was our motivating use case.
+</p>
+
+<h2>Deployment</h2>
+
+<p>
+The following diagram gives a simplified view of the deployment topology at LinkedIn.
+</p>
+
+<img src="images/tracking_high_level.png">
+
+<p>
+Note that a single kafka cluster handles all activity data from all different sources. This provides a single pipeline of data for both online and offline consumers. This tier acts as a buffer between live activity and asynchronous processing. We also use kafka to replicate all data to a different datacenter for offline consumption.
+</p>
+
+<h1>Major Design Elements</h1>
+
+<p>
+There is a small number of major design decisions that make Kafka different from most other messaging systems:
+<ol>
+<li>Kafka is designed for persistent messages as the common case</li>
+<li>Throughput rather than features are the primary design constraint</li>
+<li>State about <i>what</i> has been consumed is maintained as part of the consumer not the server</li>
+<li>Kafka is explicitly distributed. It is assumed that producers, brokers, and consumers are all spread over multiple machines.</li>
+</ol>
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Each of these decisions will be discussed in more detail below.
+</p>
+
+<h2>Basics</h2>
+<p>
+First some basic terminology and concepts.
+</p>
+<p>
+<i>Messages</i> are the fundamental unit of communication. Messages are <i>published</i> to a <i>topic</i> by a <i>producer</i> which means they are physically sent to a server acting as a <i>broker</i> (probably another machine). Some number of <i>consumers</i> subscribe to a topic, and each published message is delivered to all the consumers.
+</p>
+<p>
+Kafka is explicitly distributed&mdash;producers, consumers, and brokers can all be run on a cluster of machines that co-operate as a logical group. This happens fairly naturally for brokers and producers, but consumers require some particular support. Each consumer process belongs to a <i>consumer group</i> and each message is delivered to exactly one process within every consumer group. Hence a consumer group allows many processes or machines to logically act as a single consumer. The concept of consumer group is very powerful and can be used to support the semantics of either a <i>queue</i> or <i>topic</i> as found in JMS. To support <i>queue</i> semantics, we can put all consumers in a single consumer group, in which case each message will go to a single consumer. To support <i>topic</i> semantics, each consumer is put in its own consumer group, and then all consumers will receive each message. A more common case in our own usage is that we have multiple logical consumer 
 groups, each consisting of a cluster of consuming machines that act as a logical whole. Kafka has the added benefit in the case of large data that no matter how many consumers a topic has, a message is stored only a single time.
+</p>
+
+<h2>Message Persistence and Caching</h2>
+
+<h3>Don't fear the filesystem!</h3>
+<p>
+Kafka relies heavily on the filesystem for storing and caching messages. There is a general perception that "disks are slow" which makes people skeptical that a persistent structure can offer competitive performance. In fact disks are both much slower and much faster than people expect depending on how they are used; and a properly designed disk structure can often be as fast as the network.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The key fact about disk performance is that the throughput of hard drives has been diverging from the latency of a disk seek for the last decade. As a result the performance of linear writes on a 6 7200rpm SATA RAID-5 array is about 300MB/sec but the performance of random writes is only about 50k/sec&mdash;a difference of nearly 10000X. These linear reads and writes are the most predictable of all usage patterns, and hence the one detected and optimized best by the operating system using read-ahead and write-behind techniques that prefetch data in large block multiples and group smaller logical writes into large physical writes. A further discussion of this issue can be found in this <a href="http://deliveryimages.acm.org/10.1145/1570000/1563874/jacobs3.jpg">ACM Queue article</a>; they actually find that sequential disk access can in some cases be faster than random memory access!
+</p>
+<p>
+To compensate for this performance divergence modern operating systems have become increasingly aggressive in their use of main memory for disk caching. Any modern OS will happily divert <i>all</i> free memory to disk caching with little performance penalty when the memory is reclaimed. All disk reads and writes will go through this unified cache. This feature cannot easily be turned off without using direct I/O, so even if a process maintains an in-process cache of the data, this data will likely be duplicated in OS pagecache, effectively storing everything twice.
+</p>
+<p>
+Furthermore we are building on top of the JVM, and anyone who has spent any time with Java memory usage knows two things:
+<ol>
+	<li>The memory overhead of objects is very high, often doubling the size of the data stored (or worse).</li>
+	<li>Java garbage collection becomes increasingly sketchy and expensive as the in-heap data increases.</li>
+</ol>
+</p>
+<p>
+As a result of these factors using the filesystem and relying on pagecache is superior to maintaining an in-memory cache or other structure&mdash;we at least double the available cache by having automatic access to all free memory, and likely double again by storing a compact byte structure rather than individual objects. Doing so will result in a cache of up to 28-30GB on a 32GB machine without GC penalties. Furthermore this cache will stay warm even if the service is restarted, whereas the in-process cache will need to be rebuilt in memory (which for a 10GB cache may take 10 minutes) or else it will need to start with a completely cold cache (which likely means terrible initial performance). It also greatly simplifies the code as all logic for maintaining coherency between the cache and filesystem is now in the OS, which tends to do so more efficiently and more correctly than one-off in-process attempts. If your disk usage favors linear reads then read-ahead is effectively
  pre-populating this cache with useful data on each disk read.
+</p>
+<p>
+This suggests a design which is very simple: rather than maintain as much as possible in-memory and flush to the filesystem only when necessary, we invert that. All data is immediately written to a persistent log on the filesystem without any call to flush the data. In effect this just means that it is transferred into the kernel's pagecache where the OS can flush it later. Then we add a configuration driven flush policy to allow the user of the system to control how often data is flushed to the physical disk (every N messages or every M seconds) to put a bound on the amount of data "at risk" in the event of a hard crash.
+</p>
+<p>
+This style of pagecache-centric design is described in an <a href="http://varnish.projects.linpro.no/wiki/ArchitectNotes">article</a> on the design of Varnish here (along with a healthy helping of arrogance).
+</p>	
+<h3>Constant Time Suffices</h3>
+<p>
+The persistent data structure used in messaging systems metadata is often a BTree. BTrees are the most versatile data structure available, and make it possible to support a wide variety of transactional and non-transactional semantics in the messaging system. They do come with a fairly high cost, though: Btree operations are O(log N). Normally O(log N) is considered essentially equivalent to constant time, but this is not true for disk operations. Disk seeks come at 10 ms a pop, and each disk can do only one seek at a time so parallelism is limited. Hence even a handful of disk seeks leads to very high overhead. Since storage systems mix very fast cached operations with actual physical disk operations, the observed performance of tree structures is often superlinear. Furthermore BTrees require a very sophisticated page or row locking implementation to avoid locking the entire tree on each operation. The implementation must pay a fairly high price for row-locking or else effe
 ctively serialize all reads. Because of the heavy reliance on disk seeks it is not possible to effectively take advantage of the improvements in drive density, and one is forced to use small (&lt; 100GB) high RPM SAS drives to maintain a sane ratio of data to seek capacity.
+</p>
+<p>
+Intuitively a persistent queue could be built on simple reads and appends to files as is commonly the case with logging solutions. Though this structure would not support the rich semantics of a BTree implementation, but it has the advantage that all operations are O(1) and reads do not block writes or each other. This has obvious performance advantages since the performance is completely decoupled from the data size--one server can now take full advantage of a number of cheap, low-rotational speed 1+TB SATA drives. Though they have poor seek performance, these drives often have comparable performance for large reads and writes at 1/3 the price and 3x the capacity.
+</p>
+<p>
+Having access to virtually unlimited disk space without penalty means that we can provide some features not usually found in a messaging system. For example, in kafka, instead of deleting a message immediately after consumption, we can retain messages for a relative long period (say a week).
+</p>
+
+<h2>Maximizing Efficiency</h2>
+
+<p>
+Our assumption is that the volume of messages is extremely high, indeed it is some multiple of the total number of page views for the site (since a page view is one of the activities we process). Furthermore we assume each message published is read at least once (and often multiple times), hence we optimize for consumption rather than production.
+</p>
+<p>
+There are two common causes of inefficiency: two many network requests, and excessive byte copying.	
+</p>
+<p>
+To encourage efficiency, the APIs are built around a "message set" abstraction that naturally groups messages. This allows network requests to group messages together and amortize the overhead of the network roundtrip rather than sending a single message at a time.
+</p>
+<p>The <code>MessageSet</code> implementation is itself a very thin API that wraps a byte array or file. Hence there is no separate serialization or deserialization step required for message processing, message fields are lazily deserialized as needed (or not deserialized if not needed).
+</p>
+<p>
+The message log maintained by the broker is itself just a directory of message sets that have been written to disk. This abstraction allows a single byte format to be shared by both the broker and the consumer (and to some degree the producer, though producer messages are checksumed and validated before being added to the log).
+</p>
+<p>
+Maintaining this common format allows optimization of the most important operation: network transfer of persistent log chunks. Modern unix operating systems offer a highly optimized code path for transferring data out of pagecache to a socket; in Linux this is done with the sendfile system call. Java provides access to this system call with the <code>FileChannel.transferTo</code> api. 
+</p>
+<p>
+To understand the impact of sendfile, it is important to understand the common data path for transfer of data from file to socket:
+<ol>
+	<li>The operating system reads data from the disk into pagecache in kernel space</li>
+	<li>The application reads the data from kernel space into a user-space buffer</li>
+	<li>The application writes the data back into kernel space into a socket buffer</li>
+	<li>The operating system copies the data from the socket buffer to the NIC buffer where it is sent over the network</li>
+</ol>
+</p>
+<p>
+This is clearly inefficient, there are four copies, two system calls. Using sendfile, this re-copying is avoided by allowing the OS to send the data from pagecache to the network directly. So in this optimized path, only the final copy to the NIC buffer is needed.
+</p>
+<p>
+We expect a common use case to be multiple consumers on a topic. Using the zero-copy optimization above, data is copied into pagecache exactly once and reused on each consumption instead of being stored in memory and copied out to kernel space every time it is read. This allows messages to be consumed at a rate that approaches the limit of the network connection.
+</p>
+<p>
+For more background on the sendfile and zero-copy support in Java, see this <a href="http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/j-zerocopy">article</a> on IBM developerworks.	
+</p>
+
+<h2>Consumer state</h2>
+
+<p>
+Keeping track of <i>what</i> has been consumed is one of the key things a messaging system must provide. It is not intuitive, but recording this state is one of the key performance points for the system. State tracking requires updating a persistent entity and potentially causes random accesses. Hence it is likely to be bound by the seek time of the storage system not the write bandwidth (as described above).
+</p>
+<p>
+Most messaging systems keep metadata about what messages have been consumed on the broker. That is, as a message is handed out to a consumer, the broker records that fact locally. This is a fairly intuitive choice, and indeed for a single machine server it is not clear where else it could go. Since the data structure used for storage in many messaging systems scale poorly, this is also a pragmatic choice--since the broker knows what is consumed it can immediately delete it, keeping the data size small.
+</p>
+<p>
+What is perhaps not obvious, is that getting the broker and consumer to come into agreement about what has been consumed is not a trivial problem. If the broker records a message as <b>consumed</b> immediately every time it is handed out over the network, then if the consumer fails to process the message (say because it crashes or the request times out or whatever) then that message will be lost. To solve this problem, many messaging systems add an acknowledgement feature which means that messages are only marked as <b>sent</b> not <b>consumed</b> when they are sent; the broker waits for a specific acknowledgement from the consumer to record the message as <b>consumed</b>. This strategy fixes the problem of losing messages, but creates new problems. First of all, if the consumer processes the message but fails before it can send an acknowledgement then the message will be consumed twice. The second problem is around performance, now the broker must keep multiple states about
  every single message (first to lock it so it is not given out a second time, and then to mark it as permanently consumed so that it can be removed). Tricky problems must be dealt with, like what to do with messages that are sent but never acknowledged.
+</p>
+<h3>Message delivery semantics</h3>
+<p>
+So clearly there are multiple possible message delivery guarantees that could be provided:
+<ul>
+  <li>
+	<i>At most once</i>&mdash;this handles the first case described. Messages are immediately marked as consumed, so they can't be given out twice, but many failure scenarios may lead to losing messages.
+  </li>
+  <li>
+	<i>At least once</i>&mdash;this is the second case where we guarantee each message will be delivered at least once, but in failure cases may be delivered twice.
+  </li>
+  <li>
+	<i>Exactly once</i>&mdash;this is what people actually want, each message is delivered once and only once.
+  </li>
+</ul>	
+</p>
+<p>
+This problem is heavily studied, and is a variation of the "transaction commit" problem. Algorithms that provide exactly once semantics exist, two- or three-phase commits and Paxos variants being examples, but they come with some drawbacks. They typically require multiple round trips and may have poor guarantees of liveness (they can halt indefinitely). The FLP result provides some of the fundamental limitations on these algorithms.
+</p>
+<p>
+Kafka does two unusual things with respect to metadata. First the stream is partitioned on the brokers into a set of distinct partitions. The semantic meaning of these partitions is left up to the producer and the producer specifies which partition a message belongs to. Within a partition messages are stored in the order in which they arrive at the broker, and will be given out to consumers in that same order. This means that rather than store metadata for each message (marking it as consumed, say), we just need to store the "high water mark" for each combination of consumer, topic, and partition. Hence the total metadata required to summarize the state of the consumer is actually quite small. In Kafka we refer to this high-water mark as "the offset" for reasons that will become clear in the implementation section.
+</p>
+<h3>Consumer state</h3>
+<p>
+Kafka also maintains this state about what has been consumed to the client. This provides an easy out for some simple cases, and has a few side benefits. In the simplest cases the consumer may simply be entering some aggregate value into a centralized, transactional OLTP database. In this case the consumer can store the state of what is consumed in the same transaction as the database modification. This solves a distributed consensus problem, by removing the distributed part! A similar trick works for some non-transactional systems as well. A search system can store its consumer state with its index segments. Though it may provide no durability guarantees, this means that the index is always in sync with the consumer state: if an unflushed index segment is lost in a crash, the indexes can always resume consumption from the latest checkpointed offset. Likewise our Hadoop load job which does parallel loads from Kafka, does a similar trick. Individual mappers write the offset o
 f the last consumed message to HDFS at the end of the map task. If a job fails and gets restarted, each mapper simply restarts from the offsets stored in HDFS.
+</p>
+<p>
+There is a side benefit of this decision. A consumer can deliberately <i>rewind</i> back to an old offset and re-consume data. This violates the common contract of a queue, but turns out to be an essential feature for many consumers. For example, if the consumer code has a bug and is discovered after some messages are consumed, the consumer can re-consume those messages once the bug is fixed.
+</p>
+<h3>Push vs. pull</h3>
+<p>
+A related question is whether consumers should pull data from brokers or brokers should push data to the subscriber. In this respect Kafka follows a more traditional design, shared by most messaging systems, where data is pushed to the broker from the producer and pulled from the broker by the consumer. Some recent systems, such as <a href="http://github.com/facebook/scribe">scribe</a> and <a href="http://github.com/cloudera/flume">flume</a>, focusing on log aggregation, follow a very different push based path where each node acts as a broker and data is pushed downstream. There are pros and cons to both approaches. However a push-based system has difficulty dealing with diverse consumers as the broker controls the rate at which data is transferred. The goal, is generally for the consumer to be able to consume at the maximum possible rate; unfortunately in a push system this means the consumer tends to be overwhelmed when its rate of consumption falls below the rate of produ
 ction (a denial of service attack, in essence). A pull-based system has the nicer property that the consumer simply falls behind and catches up when it can. This can be mitigated with some kind of backoff protocol by which the consumer can indicate it is overwhelmed, but getting the rate of transfer to fully utilize (but never over-utilize) the consumer is trickier than it seems. Previous attempts at building systems in this fashion led us to go with a more traditional pull model.
+</p>
+
+<h2>Distribution</h2>
+<p>
+Kafka is built to be run across a cluster of machines as the common case. Brokers and consumers co-ordinate through Zookeeper to discover topics and co-ordinate consumption. There is no central "master" node, instead brokers and consumers co-ordinate amongst one-another as homogenious set of peers. The set of machines in the cluster is fully elastic: brokers and consumers can both be added and removed at anytime without any manual configuration change.
+</p>
+<p>
+Currently, there is no built-in load balancing between the producers and the brokers in Kafka; in our own usage we publish from a large number of heterogeneous machines and so it is desirable that the publisher not need any explicit knowledge of the cluster topology. We rely on a hardware load balancer to distribute the producer load across multiple brokers. We will consider adding this in a future release to allow semantic partitioning of messages (i.e. publishing all messages to a particular broker based on some id to ensure an ordered stream of updates within that id).
+</p>
+<p>
+Kafka does have built-in load balancing between the consumers and the brokers. To achieve this co-ordination, each broker and each consumer register its state and maintains its metadata in Zookeeper. When there is a broker or a consumer change, each consumer is notified about the change through the zookeeper watcher. The consumer then reads the current information about all relevant brokers and consumers, and determines which brokers it should consume data from.
+</p>
+<p>
+This kind of cluster-aware balancing of consumption has several advantages:
+<ul>
+	<li>It allows better semantics around ordering for the consumer processes (since all updates to a particular partition are handled in order as a single stream by the consumer).</li>
+	<li>It also enforces fair balancing across the cluster so that every broker is being consumed from.</li>
+	<li>Finally, because the processes do not co-ordinate except when a new broker or consumer appears, it can be more efficient. Rather than "locking" and "unlocking" the partition on each request (which may be more expensive than the actual consumption) we can simply lock the partition to a particular consumer process until a topology change occurs. This allows a much lazier updating of metadata in exchange for better performance when that is desired.</li>
+</ul>
+</p>
+
+<h2>Producer</h2>
+
+<h3>Automatic load balancing</h3>
+<p>
+In v0.6, we introduced built-in automatic load balancing between the producers and the brokers in Kafka; Currently, in our own usage we publish from a large number of heterogeneous machines and so it is desirable that the publisher not need any explicit knowledge of the cluster topology. We rely on a hardware load balancer to distribute the producer load across multiple brokers. An advantage of using the hardware load balancer is the “healthcheck” service that detects if a broker is down and forwards the producer request to another healthy broker. In v0.6, this “healthcheck” feature is provided in the cluster-aware producer. Producers discover the available brokers in a cluster and the number of partitions on each, by registering watchers in zookeeper. Since the number of broker partitions is configurable per topic, zookeeper watchers are registered on the following events -
+</p>
+<ul>
+<li>a new broker comes up</li>
+<li>a broker goes down</li>
+<li>a new topic is registered</li>
+<li>a broker gets registered for an existing topic</li>
+</ul>
+<p>
+Internally, the producer maintains an elastic pool of connections to the brokers, one per broker. This pool is kept updated to establish/maintain connections to all the live brokers, through the zookeeper watcher callbacks. When a producer request for a particular topic comes in, a broker partition is picked by the partitioner (see section on Semantic partitioning). The available producer connection is used from the pool to send the data to the selected  broker partition.
+</p>
+
+<h3>Asynchronous send</h3>
+<p>
+Asynchronous non-blocking operations are fundamental to scaling messaging systems. In Kafka, the producer provides an option to use asynchronous dispatch of produce requests (producer.type=async). This allows buffering of produce requests in a in-memory queue and batch sends that are triggered by a time interval or a pre-configured batch size. Since data is typically published from set of heterogenous machines producing data at variable rates, this asynchronous buffering helps generate uniform traffic to the brokers, leading to better network utilization and higher throughput. 
+</p>
+
+<h3>Semantic partitioning</h3>
+<p>
+Consider an application that would like to maintain an aggregation of the number of profile visitors for each member. It would like to send all profile visit events for a member to a particular partition and, hence, have all updates for a member to appear in the same stream for the same consumer thread. In v0.6, we added the capability to the cluster aware producer to be able to semantically map messages to the available kafka nodes and partitions. This allows partitioning the stream of messages with some semantic partition function based on some key in the message to spread them over broker machines. The partitioning function can be customized by providing an implementation of the kafka.producer.Partitioner interface, default being the random partitioner. For the example above, the key would be member_id and the partitioning function would be hash(member_id)%num_partitions.
+</p>
+
+<h2>Support for Hadoop and other batch data load</h2>
+
+<p>
+Scalable persistence allows for the possibility of supporting batch data loads that periodically snapshot data into an offline system for batch processing.  We make use of this for loading data into our data warehouse and Hadoop clusters.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Batch processing happens in stages beginning with the data load stage and proceeding in an acyclic graph of processing and output stages (e.g. as supported <a href="../azkaban">here</a>). An essential feature of support for this model is the ability to re-run the data load from a point in time (in case anything goes wrong).
+</p>
+
+<p>
+In the case of Hadoop we parallelize the data load by splitting the load over individual map tasks, one for each node/topic/partition combination, allowing full parallelism in the loading. Hadoop provides the task management, and tasks which fail can restart without danger of duplicate data.
+</p>
+
+<h1>Implementation Details</h1>
+
+<p>
+The following gives a brief description of some relevant lower-level implementation details for some parts of the system described in the above section.
+</p>
+<h2>API Design</h2>
+
+<h3>Producer APIs</h3>
+
+<p>
+The Producer API that wraps the 2 low-level producers - <code>kafka.producer.SyncProducer</code> and <code>kafka.producer.async.AsyncProducer</code>. 
+<pre>
+class Producer<T> {
+	
+  /* Sends the data, partitioned by key to the topic using either the */
+  /* synchronous or the asynchronous producer */
+  public void send(kafka.javaapi.producer.ProducerData<K,V> producerData);
+
+  /* Sends a list of data, partitioned by key to the topic using either */
+  /* the synchronous or the asynchronous producer */
+  public void send(java.util.List< kafka.javaapi.producer.ProducerData<K,V>> producerData);
+
+  /* Closes the producer and cleans up */	
+  public void close();
+
+}
+</pre>
+
+The goal is to expose all the producer functionality through a single API to the client.  
+
+The new producer -
+<ul>
+<li>can handle queueing/buffering of multiple producer requests and asynchronous dispatch of the batched data - 	
+<p><code>kafka.producer.Producer</code> provides the ability to batch multiple produce requests (<code>producer.type=async</code>), before serializing and dispatching them to the appropriate kafka broker partition. The size of the batch can be controlled by a few config parameters. As events enter a queue, they are buffered in a blocking queue, until either <code>buffer.time</code> or <code>batch.size</code> is reached. A background thread (<code>kafka.producer.async.ProducerSendThread</code>) dequeues the batch of data and lets the <code>kafka.producer.EventHandler</code> serialize and send the data to the appropriate kafka broker partition. A custom event handler can be plugged in through the <code>event.handler</code> config parameter. At various stages of this producer queue pipeline, it is helpful to be able to inject callbacks, either for plugging in custom logging/tracing code or custom monitoring logic. This is possible by implementing the <code>kafka.producer.async.
 CallbackHandler</code> interface and setting <code>callback.handler</code> config parameter to that class.
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>handles the serialization of data through a user-specified <code>Encoder</code> - 
+<pre>
+interface Encoder&lt;T&gt; {
+  public Message toMessage(T data);
+}
+</pre>
+<p>The default is the no-op <code>kafka.serializer.DefaultEncoder</code></p>
+</li>
+<li>provides zookeeper based automatic broker discovery - 
+<p>
+The zookeeper based broker discovery and load balancing can be used by specifying the zookeeper connection url through the <code>zk.connect</code> config parameter. For some applications, however, the dependence on zookeeper is inappropriate. In that case, the producer can take in a static list of brokers through the <code>broker.list</code> config parameter. Each produce requests gets routed to a random broker partition in this case. If that broker is down, the produce request fails. 
+</p>
+</li>
+<li>provides software load balancing through an optionally user-specified <code>Partitioner</code> - 
+<p>
+The routing decision is influenced by the <code>kafka.producer.Partitioner</code>. 
+<pre>
+interface Partitioner&lt;T&gt; {
+   int partition(T key, int numPartitions);
+}
+</pre>
+The partition API uses the key and the number of available broker partitions to return a partition id. This id is used as an index into a sorted list of broker_ids and partitions to pick a broker partition for the producer request. The default partitioning strategy is <code>hash(key)%numPartitions</code>. If the key is null, then a random broker partition is picked. A custom partitioning strategy can also be plugged in using the <code>partitioner.class</code> config parameter.	
+</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</p>
+
+<h3>Consumer APIs</h3>
+<p>
+We have 2 levels of consumer APIs. The low-level "simple" API maintains a connection to a single broker and has a close correspondence to the network requests sent to the server. This API is completely stateless, with the offset being passed in on every request, allowing the user to maintain this metadata however they choose.
+</p>
+<p>
+The high-level API hides the details of brokers from the consumer and allows consuming off the cluster of machines without concern for the underlying topology. It also maintains the state of what has been consumed.
+</p>
+
+<h4>Low-level API</h4>
+<pre>
+class SimpleConsumer {
+	
+  /* Send fetch request to a broker and get back a set of messages. */ 
+  public ByteBufferMessageSet fetch(FetchRequest request);
+
+  /* Send a list of fetch requests to a broker and get back a response set. */ 
+  public MultiFetchResponse multifetch(List&lt;FetchRequest&gt; fetches);
+
+  /**
+   * Get a list of valid offsets (up to maxSize) before the given time.
+   * The result is a list of offsets, in descending order.
+   * @param time: time in millisecs,
+   *              if set to OffsetRequest$.MODULE$.LATIEST_TIME(), get from the latest offset available.
+   *              if set to OffsetRequest$.MODULE$.EARLIEST_TIME(), get from the earliest offset available.
+   */
+  public long[] getOffsetsBefore(String topic, int partition, long time, int maxNumOffsets);
+}
+</pre>
+
+The low-level API is used to implement the high-level API as well as being used directly for some of our offline consumers (such as the hadoop consumer) which have particular requirements around maintaining state.
+
+<h4>High-level API</h4>
+<pre>
+
+/* create a connection to the cluster */ 
+ConsumerConnector connector = Consumer.create(consumerConfig);
+
+interface ConsumerConnector {
+	
+  /**
+   * This method is used to get a list of KafkaMessageStreams, which are iterators over topic.
+   *  Input: a map of &lt;topic, #streams&gt;
+   *  Output: a map of &lt;topic, list of message streams&gt;
+   *          Each message stream supports a message iterator.
+   */
+  public Map&lt;String,List&lt;KafkaMessageStream&gt;&gt; createMessageStreams(Map&lt;String,Int&gt; topicCountMap); 
+
+  /* Commit the offsets of all messages consumed so far. */
+  public commitOffsets()
+  
+  /* Shut down the connector */
+  public shutdown()
+}
+</pre>
+<p>
+This API is centered around iterators, implemented by the KafkaMessageStream class. Each KafkaMessageStream represents the stream of messages from one or more partitions on one or more servers. Each stream is used for single threaded processing, so the client can provide the number of desired streams in the create call. Thus a stream may represent the merging of multiple server partitions (to correspond to the number of processing threads), but each partition only goes to one stream.
+</p>
+<p>
+The create call registers the consumer for the topic, which results in rebalancing the consumer/broker assignment. To minimize this rebalancing the API encourages creating many topic streams in a single call.	
+</p>
+<h2>Network Layer</h2>
+<p>
+The network layer is a fairly straight-forward NIO server, and will not be described in great detail. The sendfile implementation is done by giving the <code>MessageSet</code> interface a <code>writeTo</code> method. This allows the file-backed message set to use the more efficient <code>transferTo</code> implementation instead of an in-process buffered write. The threading model is a single acceptor thread and <i>N</i> processor threads which handle a fixed number of connections each. This design has been pretty thoroughly tested <a href="http://sna-projects.com/blog/2009/08/introducing-the-nio-socketserver-implementation">elsewhere</a> and found to be simple to implement and fast. The protocol is kept quite simple to allow for future the implementation of clients in other languages.
+</p>
+<h2>Messages</h2>
+<p>
+Messages consist of a fixed-size header and variable length opaque byte array payload. The header contains a format version and a CRC32 checksum to detect corruption or truncation. Leaving the payload opaque is the right decision: there is a great deal of progress being made on serialization libraries right now, and any particular choice is unlikely to be right for all uses. Needless to say a particular application using Kafka would likely mandate a particular serialization type as part of its usage. The <code>MessageSet</code> interface is simply an iterator over messages with specialized methods for bulk reading and writing to an NIO <code>Channel</code>.
+</p>
+<h2>Log</h2>
+<p>
+A log for a topic named "my_topic" with two partitions consists of two directories (namely <code>my_topic_0</code> and <code>my_topic_1</code>) populated with data files containing the messages for that topic. The format of the log files is a sequence of "log entries""; each log entry is a 4 byte integer <i>N</i> storing the message length which is followed by the <i>N</i> message bytes. Each message is uniquely identified by a 64-bit integer <i>offset</i> giving the byte position of the start of this message in the stream of all messages ever sent to that topic on that partition. The on-disk format of each message is given below. Each log file is named with the offset of the first message it contains. So the first file created will be 00000000000.kafka, and each additional file will have an integer name roughly <i>S</i> bytes from the previous file where <i>S</i> is the max log file size given in the configuration.
+</p>
+<p>
+The exact binary format for messages is versioned and maintained as a standard interface so message sets can be transfered between producer, broker, and client without recopying or conversion when desirable. This format is as follows:
+</p>
+<pre>
+On-disk format of a message
+
+message length : 4 bytes (value: 1+4+n) 
+"magic" value  : 1 byte
+crc            : 4 bytes
+payload        : n bytes
+</pre>
+<p>
+The use of the message offset as the message id is unusual. Our original idea was to use a GUID generated by the producer, and maintain a mapping from GUID to offset on each broker. But since a consumer must maintain an ID for each server, the global uniqueness of the GUID provides no value. Furthermore the complexity of maintaining the mapping from a random id to an offset requires a heavy weight index structure which must be synchronized with disk, essentially requiring a full persistent random-access data structure. Thus to simplify the lookup structure we decided to use a simple per-partition atomic counter which could be coupled with the partition id and node id to uniquely identify a message; this makes the lookup structure simpler, though multiple seeks per consumer request are still likely. However once we settled on a counter, the jump to directly using the offset seemed natural&mdash;both after all are monotonically increasing integers unique to a partition. Since 
 the offset is hidden from the consumer API this decision is ultimately an implementation detail and we went with the more efficient approach.
+</p>
+<img src="images/kafka_log.png">
+<h3>Writes</h3>
+<p>
+The log allows serial appends which always go to the last file. This file is rolled over to a fresh file when it reaches a configurable size (say 1GB). The log takes two configuration parameter <i>M</i> which gives the number of messages to write before forcing the OS to flush the file to disk, and <i>S</i> which gives a number of seconds after which a flush is forced. This gives a durability guarantee of losing at most <i>M</i> messages or <i>S</i> seconds of data in the event of a system crash.
+</p>
+<h3>Reads</h3>
+<p>
+Reads are done by giving the 64-bit logical offset of a message and an <i>S</i>-byte max chunk size. This will return an iterator over the messages contained in the <i>S</i>-byte buffer. <i>S</i> is intended to be larger than any single message, but in the event of an abnormally large message, the read can be retried multiple times, each time doubling the buffer size, until the message is read successfully. A maximum message and buffer size can be specified to make the server reject messages larger than some size, and to give a bound to the client on the maximum it need ever read to get a complete message. It is likely that the read buffer ends with a partial message, this is easily detected by the size delimiting.
+</p>
+<p>
+The actual process of reading from an offset requires first locating the log segment file in which the data is stored, calculating the file-specific offset from the global offset value, and then reading from that file offset. The search is done as a simple binary search variation against an in-memory range maintained for each file.
+</p>
+<p>
+The log provides the capability of getting the most recently written message to allow clients to start subscribing as of "right now". This is also useful in the case the consumer fails to consume its data within its SLA-specified number of days. In this case when the client attempts to consume a non-existant offset it is given an OutOfRangeException and can either reset itself or fail as appropriate to the use case.
+</p>
+
+<p> The following is the format of the results sent to the consumer.
+
+<pre>
+MessageSetSend (fetch result)
+
+total length     : 4 bytes
+error code       : 2 bytes
+message 1        : x bytes
+...
+message n        : x bytes
+</pre>
+
+<pre>
+MultiMessageSetSend (multiFetch result)
+
+total length       : 4 bytes
+error code         : 2 bytes
+messageSetSend 1
+...
+messageSetSend n
+</pre>
+
+<h3>Deletes</h3>
+<p>
+Data is deleted one log segment at a time. The log manager allows pluggable delete policies to choose which files are eligible for deletion. The current policy deletes any log with a modification time of more than <i>N</i> days ago, though a policy which retained the last <i>N</i> GB could also be useful. To avoid locking reads while still allowing deletes that modify the segment list we use a copy-on-write style segment list implementation that provides consistent views to allow a binary search to proceed on an immutable static snapshot view of the log segments while deletes are progressing.
+</p>
+<h3>Guarantees</h3>
+<p>
+The log provides a configuration parameter <i>M</i> which controls the maximum number of messages that are written before forcing a flush to disk. On startup a log recovery process is run that iterates over all messages in the newest log segment and verifies that each message entry is valid. A message entry is valid if the sum of its size and offset are less than the length of the file AND the CRC32 of the message payload matches the CRC stored with the message. In the event corruption is detected the log is truncated to the last valid offset.
+</p>
+<p>
+Note that two kinds of corruption must be handled: truncation in which an unwritten block is lost due to a crash, and corruption in which a nonsense block is ADDED to the file. The reason for this is that in general the OS makes no guarantee of the write order between the file inode and the actual block data so in addition to losing written data the file can gain nonsense data if the inode is updated with a new size but a crash occurs before the block containing that data is not written. The CRC detects this corner case, and prevents it from corrupting the log (though the unwritten messages are, of course, lost).
+</p>
+
+<h2>Distribution</h2>
+<h3>Zookeeper Directories</h3>
+<p>
+The following gives the zookeeper structures and algorithms used for co-ordination between consumers and brokers.
+</p>
+
+<h3>Notation</h3>
+<p>
+When an element in a path is denoted [xyz], that means that the value of xyz is not fixed and there is in fact a zookeeper znode for each possible value of xyz. For example /topics/[topic] would be a directory named /topics containing a sub-directory for each topic name. Numerical ranges are also given such as [0...5] to indicate the subdirectories 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. An arrow -> is used to indicate the contents of a znode. For example /hello -> world would indicate a znode /hello containing the value "world".
+</p>
+
+<h3>Broker Node Registry</h3>
+<pre>
+/brokers/ids/[0...N] --> host:port (ephemeral node)
+</pre>
+<p>
+This is a list of all present broker nodes, each of which provides a unique logical broker id which identifies it to consumers (which must be given as part of its configuration). On startup, a broker node registers itself by creating a znode with the logical broker id under /brokers/ids. The purpose of the logical broker id is to allow a broker to be moved to a different physical machine without affecting consumers. An attempt to register a broker id that is already in use (say because two servers are configured with the same broker id) is an error.
+</p>
+<p>
+Since the broker registers itself in zookeeper using ephemeral znodes, this registration is dynamic and will disappear if the broker is shutdown or dies (thus notifying consumers it is no longer available).	
+</p>
+<h3>Broker Topic Registry</h3>
+<pre>
+/brokers/topics/[topic]/[0...N] --> nPartions (ephemeral node)
+</pre>
+
+<p>
+Each broker registers itself under the topics it maintains and stores the number of partitions for that topic.
+</p>
+
+<h3>Consumers and Consumer Groups</h3>
+<p>
+Consumers of topics also register themselves in Zookeeper, in order to balance the consumption of data and track their offsets in each partition for each broker they consume from.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Multiple consumers can form a group and jointly consume a single topic. Each consumer in the same group is given a shared group_id. 
+For example if one consumer is your foobar process, which is run across three machines, then you might assign this group of consumers the id "foobar". This group id is provided in the configuration of the consumer, and is your way to tell the consumer which group it belongs to.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The consumers in a group divide up the partitions as fairly as possible, each partition is consumed by exactly one consumer in a consumer group.
+</p>
+
+<h3>Consumer Id Registry</h3>
+<p>
+In addition to the group_id which is shared by all consumers in a group, each consumer is given a transient, unique consumer_id (of the form hostname:uuid) for identification purposes. Consumer ids are registered in the following directory.
+<pre>
+/consumers/[group_id]/ids/[consumer_id] --> {"topic1": #streams, ..., "topicN": #streams} (ephemeral node)
+</pre>
+Each of the consumers in the group registers under its group and creates a znode with its consumer_id. The value of the znode contains a map of &lt;topic, #streams&gt;. This id is simply used to identify each of the consumers which is currently active within a group. This is an ephemeral node so it will disappear if the consumer process dies.
+</p>
+
+<h3>Consumer Offset Tracking</h3>
+<p>
+Consumers track the maximum offset they have consumed in each partition. This value is stored in a zookeeper directory
+</p>
+<pre>
+/consumers/[group_id]/offsets/[topic]/[broker_id-partition_id] --> offset_counter_value ((persistent node)
+</pre>
+
+<h3>Partition Owner registry</h3>
+
+<p>
+Each broker partition is consumed by a single consumer within a given consumer group. The consumer must establish its ownership of a given partition before any consumption can begin. To establish its ownership, a consumer writes its own id in an ephemeral node under the particular broker partition it is claiming.
+</p>
+
+<pre>
+/consumers/[group_id]/owners/[topic]/[broker_id-partition_id] --> consumer_node_id (ephemeral node)
+</pre>
+
+<h3>Broker node registration</h3>
+
+<p>
+The broker nodes are basically independent, so they only publish information about what they have. When a broker joins, it registers itself under the broker node registry directory and writes information about its host name and port. The broker also register the list of existing topics and their logical partitions in the broker topic registry. New topics are registered dynamically when they are created on the broker.
+</p>
+
+<h3>Consumer registration algorithm</h3>
+
+<p>
+When a consumer starts, it does the following:
+<ol>
+   <li> Register itself in the consumer id registry under its group.
+   </li>
+   <li> Register a watch on changes (new consumers joining or any existing consumers leaving) under the consumer id registry. Each change triggers rebalancing among all consumers within the group to which the changed consumer belongs.
+   </li>
+   <li> Register a watch on changes (new brokers joining or any existing brokers leaving) under the broker id registry.  Each change triggers rebalancing among all consumers in all consumer groups. </li>
+   <li> Force itself to rebalance within in its consumer group.
+   </li>
+</ol>
+</p>
+
+<h3>Consumer rebalancing algorithm</h3>
+<p>
+The consumer rebalancing algorithms allows all the consumers in a group to come into consensus on which consumer is consuming which partitions. Consumer rebalancing is triggered on each addition or removal of both broker nodes and other consumers within the same group. For a given topic and a given consumer group, broker partitions are divided evenly among consumers within the group. A partition is always consumed by a single consumer. If there are more consumers than partitions, some consumers won't get any data at all. During rebalancing, we try to assign partitions to consumers in such a way that reduces the number of broker nodes each consumer has to connect to.
+</p>
+<p>
+Each consumer does the following during rebalancing:
+</p>
+<pre>
+   1. For each topic T that C<sub>i</sub> subscribes to 
+   2.   let P<sub>T</sub> be all partitions producing topic T
+   3.   let C<sub>G</sub> be all consumers in the same group as C<sub>i</sub> that consume topic T
+   4.   sort P<sub>T</sub> (so partitions on the same broker are clustered together)
+   5.   sort C<sub>G</sub>
+   6.   let i be the index position of C<sub>i</sub> in C<sub>G</sub> and let N = size(P<sub>T</sub>)/size(C<sub>G</sub>)
+   7.   assign partitions from i*N to (i+1)*N - 1 to consumer C<sub>i</sub>
+   8.   remove current entries owned by C<sub>i</sub> from the partition owner registry
+   9.   add newly assigned partitions to the partition owner registry
+        (we may need to re-try this until the original partition owner releases its ownership)
+</pre>
+<p>
+When rebalancing is triggered at one consumer, rebalancing should be triggered in other consumers within the same group about the same time.
+</p>
+
+</h2>
+
+<!--#include virtual="includes/footer.html" -->

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+
+<h2>Downloads</h2>
+<ul>
+<li><a href="downloads/kafka-0.05.zip">kafka-0.05.zip</a></li> 
+<li><a href="downloads/kafka-0.6.zip">kafka-0.6.zip</a></li>
+</ul>
+
+<h2>Release Notes</h2>
+<ul>
+<li><a href="downloads/v0.6-release-notes.html">v0.6 release notes</a></li>
+</ul>
+
+<h2>API docs</h2>
+<ul>
+<li><a href="downloads/0.6-api/index.html">0.6 API docs</a></li>
+</ul>
+
+<!--#include virtual="includes/footer.html" -->

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+
+<h2>Frequently asked questions</h3>
+<ol>	
+<li> <h3> Why does my consumer get InvalidMessageSizeException? </h3>
+This typically means that the "fetch size" of the consumer is too small. Each time the consumer pulls data from the broker, it reads bytes up to a configured limit. If that limit is smaller than the largest single message stored in Kafka, the consumer can't decode the message properly and will throw an InvalidMessageSizeException. To fix this, increase the limit by setting the property "fetch.size" properly in config/consumer.properties. The default fetch.size is 300,000 bytes.
+
+<li> <h3> On EC2, why can't my high-level consumers connect to the brokers? </h3>
+When a broker starts up, it registers its host ip in ZK. The high-level consumer later uses the registered host ip to establish the socket connection to the broker. By default, the registered ip is given by InetAddress.getLocalHost.getHostAddress. Typically, this should return the real ip of the host. However, in EC2, the returned ip is an internal one and can't be connected to from outside. The solution is to explicitly set the host ip to be registered in ZK by setting the "hostname" property in server.properties.
+
+</ol>
+
+<!--#include virtual="includes/footer.html" -->
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+	</body>
+</html>
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+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
+<html xmlns:og="http://ogp.me/ns#">
+	<head>
+		<title>Apache Kafka</title>
+		<link rel='stylesheet' href='styles.css' type='text/css'>
+		<link rel="icon" type="image/png" href="http://path/to/favicon.png"><meta name="keywords" content="keywords!">
+		<meta name="description" content="A high-throughput, distributed, publish-subscribe messaging system.">
+		<meta http-equiv='Content-Type' content='text/html;charset=utf-8' />
+		<meta property="og:title" value="Kafka" />
+		<meta property="og:image" value="" />
+		<meta property="og:description" value="A high-throughput, distributed, publish-subscribe messaging system." />
+		<meta property="og:site_name" value="sna-projects" />
+		<meta property="og:type" value="website" />
+	</head>
+	<body>
+		<div>
+			<div id="header" style="overflow: hidden">
+				<div>
+					<div class="title">Apache Kafka</div>
+					<div class="subtitle">A high-throughput distributed messaging system.</div>
+				</div>
+			</div>
+			<div class="lsidebar">
+				<ul>
+					<li><a href="downloads.html">download</a></li>
+					<li><a href="https://github.com/kafka-dev/kafka">code</a></li>
+					<li><a href="javadoc/current">javadoc</a></li>
+					<li><a href="quickstart.html">quickstart</a></li>
+					<li><a href="design.html">design</a></li>
+					<li><a href="configuration.html">configuration</a></li>
+					<li><a href="performance.html">performance</a></li>
+					<li><a href="projects.html">projects</a></li>
+					<li><a href="faq.html">faq</a></li>
+					<li><a href="https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/KAFKA">bugs</a></li>
+					<li><a href="contact.html">mailing&nbsp;lists</a></li>
+					<li><a href="http://test.project-voldemort.com:8080/">unit&nbsp;tests</a></li>
+				</ul>
+			</div>
+		<div class='content'>
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+
+<h2>Apache Kafka is a distributed publish-subscribe messaging system</h2>
+<p>
+Apache Kafka is a distributed publish-subscribe messaging system. It is designed to support the following
+<ul>
+	<li>Persistent messaging with O(1) disk structures that provide constant time performance even with many TB of stored messages.</li>
+	<li>High-throughput: even with very modest hardware Kafka can support hundreds of thousands of messages per second.</li>
+    <li>Explicit support for partitioning messages over Kafka servers and distributing consumption over a cluster of consumer machines while maintaining per-partition ordering semantics.</li>
+    <li>Support for parallel data load into Hadoop.</li>
+</ul>
+
+Kafka provides a publish-subscribe solution that can handle all activity stream data and processing on a consumer-scale web site. This kind of activity (page views, searches, and other user actions) are a key ingredient in many of the social feature on the modern web. This data is typically handled by "logging" and ad hoc log aggregation solutions due to the throughput requirements. This kind of ad hoc solution is a viable solution to providing logging data to an offline analysis system like Hadoop, but is very limiting for building real-time processing. Kafka aims to unify offline and online processing by providing a mechanism for parallel load into Hadoop as well as the ability to partition real-time consumption over a cluster of machines.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+The use for activity stream processing makes Kafka comparable to <a href="https://github.com/facebook/scribe">Facebook's Scribe</a> or <a href="https://github.com/cloudera/flume">Cloudera's Flume</a>, though the architecture and primitives are very different for these systems and make Kafka more comparable to a traditional messaging system. See our <a href="design.php">design</a> page for more details.	
+</p>
+
+<p>
+Kafka has recently become an Apache Incubator project. You can reach us <a href="contact.php">here<a/>.
+</p>
+
+<!--#include virtual="includes/footer.html" -->

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+
+<h2>Performance Results</h2>
+<p>The following tests give some basic information on Kafka throughput as the number of topics, consumers and producers and overall data size varies. Since Kafka nodes are independent, these tests are run with a single producer, consumer, and broker machine. Results can be extrapolated for a larger cluster.
+</p>
+
+<p>
+We run producer and consumer tests separately to isolate their performance. For the consumer these tests test <i>cold</i> performance, that is consuming a large uncached backlog of messages. Simultaneous production and consumption tends to help performance since the cache is hot.
+</p>
+
+<p>We took below setting for some of the parameters:</p>
+
+<ul>
+<li>message size = 200 bytes</li>
+<li>batch size = 200 messages</li>
+<li>fetch size = 1MB</li>
+<li>flush interval = 600 messages</li>
+</ul>
+
+In our performance tests, we run experiments to answer below questions.
+<h3>What is the producer throughput as a function of batch size?</h3>
+<p>We can push about 50MB/sec to the system. However, this number changes with the batch size. The below graphs show the relation between these two quantities.<p>
+<p><span style="" class="image-wrap"><img border="0" src="images/onlyBatchSize.jpg" width="500" height="300"/></span><br /></p>
+
+<h3>What is the consumer throughput?</h3>
+<p>According to our experiments, we can consume about 100M/sec from a broker and the total does not seem to change much as we increase
+the number of consumer threads.<p>
+<p><span style="" class="image-wrap"><img border="0" src="images/onlyConsumer.jpg" width="500" height="300"/></span> </p>
+
+<h3> Does data size effect our performance? </h3>
+<p><span style="" class="image-wrap"><img border="0" src="images/dataSize.jpg" width="500" height="300"/></span><br /></p>
+
+<h3>What is the effect of the number of producer threads on producer throughput?</h3>
+<p>We are able to max out production with only a few threads.<p>
+<p><span style="" class="image-wrap"><img border="0" src="images/onlyProducer.jpg" width="500" height="300"/></span><br /></p>
+
+<h3> What is the effect of number of topics on producer throughput?</h3>
+<p>Based on our experiments, the number of topic has a minimal effect on the total data produced.
+The below graph is an experiment where we used 40 producers and varied the number of topics<p>
+
+<p><span style="" class="image-wrap"><img border="0" src="images/onlyTopic.jpg" width="500" height="300"/></span><br /></p>
+
+<h2>How to Run a Performance Test</h2>
+
+<p>The performance related code is under perf folder. To run the simulator :</p>
+
+<p>&nbsp;../run-simulator.sh -kafkaServer=localhost -numTopic=10&nbsp;  -reportFile=report-html/data -time=15 -numConsumer=20 -numProducer=40  -xaxis=numTopic</p>
+
+<p>It will run a simulator with 40 producer and 20 consumer threads 
+          producing/consuming from a local kafkaserver.&nbsp; The simulator is going to
+          run 15 minutes and the results are going to be saved under 
+          report-html/data</p>
+
+<p>and they will be plotted from there. Basically it will write MB of 
+          data consumed/produced, number of messages consumed/produced given a 
+          number of topic and report.html will plot the charts.</p>
+
+
+      <p>Other parameters include numParts, fetchSize, messageSize.</p>
+
+      <p>In order to test how the number of topic affects the performance the below script can be used (it is under utl-bin)</p>
+
+
+
+      <p>#!/bin/bash<br />
+      			 
+         for i in 1 10 20 30 40 50;<br />
+     
+         do<br />
+
+         &nbsp; ../kafka-server.sh server.properties 2>&amp;1 >kafka.out&amp;<br />
+         sleep 60<br />
+  &nbsp;../run-simulator.sh -kafkaServer=localhost -numTopic=$i&nbsp;  -reportFile=report-html/data -time=15 -numConsumer=20 -numProducer=40  -xaxis=numTopic<br />
+         &nbsp;../stop-server.sh<br />
+	  &nbsp;rm -rf /tmp/kafka-logs<br />
+     
+         &nbsp;sleep 300<br />
+    	   
+         done</p>
+
+<p>The charts similar to above graphs can be plotted with report.html automatically.</p>
+
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