Hi Jochen, and thanks for the reply.

On Sun, Jul 19, 2015 at 9:14 AM, Jochen Theodorou <blackdrag@gmx.org> wrote:

parameter = variable (with type) declared in a method/closure
argument  = value (with type) used to call a method/closure

Yep, i totally confused the terms 'parameter' and 'argument' with each other. Thanks for clearing it for me. But, apart from that, the question still stays.

So it means the closure is called with a value of type StringWriter. The parameter can of course have any type that is a parent to StringWriter. No type being used means for example Object. But if you supply an incompatible type, you will get an exception on call. For example if you give the parameter w the type int, then you do have leftShift on there, but the method call to the closure itself is still done with a StringWriter and will fail.

Wait a minute. So am i getting it correct that all the embedded closures that are declared to have a parameter take an implicit argument of the type StringWriter by design? Because that code snippet i mentioned,

def  sOneParamClosure=  "1 + 2 == ${ w -> w << 3}"
assert  sOneParamClosure==  '1 + 2 == 3'

is self-sufficient in the documentation, and these two statements give no reason to assume that there's some variable around named 'w' of type StringWriter that was simply bound by the closure. Plus, it would be illegal syntax-wise because 'w' in the first statement is the name of the argument, which means it has a local visibility scope and refers to an argument passed to the closure. Am i wrong here?

So either all the parameterized embedded closures do by design take an implicit argument of type StringWriter, or my question remains: how does one pass arguments to such closures? I mean, let's view it as the manual tells us. Here - http://www.groovy-lang.org/syntax.html#_string_interpolation - it says the following:

The placeholder expressions are surrounded by ${} or prefixed with $ for dotted expressions. The expression value inside the placeholder is evaluated to its string representation when the GString is passed to a method taking a String as argument by calling toString() on that expression.

the embedded closures are a special case of string interpolation and interpolated strings are evaluated upon conversion to regular Java strings, then the second statement from the code block above is a place where such conversion takes place. So if one can somehow pass an argument to the embedded closure, it should be either here or somewhere above. But i don't see anything that might count for it.

So what am i getting wrong?

- Dmitry